As we are nearing the end of the first 25 years of the 21st century. What is increasingly noticeable is the growing dysfunction and pathology of big systems and of their elements, including – given the omnipresent interrelations and interdependencies – entire masses of smaller entities, together with micro- and family businesses. The author asks a question of whether it could be reasonable to consider returning to some of the assumptions, instruments, and methods adopted within the framework of the systems approach from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, which was originally
conceived and created to treat big systems. Do the achievements made in the field of research in recent decades make it possible to bridge the cognitive gaps that determined the failure of the systems approach in the past century? These gaps are mainly the social mechanisms of functioning of organised systems. There is absolutely no doubt that we have seen huge progress in this domain, mostly thanks to interdisciplinary research and research conducted in recently-emergent “hybrid” disciplines like economic or organisational sociology and psychology, sociology and psychology
of management, behavioural economics, behavioural finance, contemporary political
economics, but also hybrid legal sciences such as: economics, sociology, and politics of law, political sciences and strategic analyses. The author argues that we need an attempt of a certain reactivation of the systems approach in the context of diagnostics and treatment, meaning a redesign of entire organisational systems– or dynamic connections in a networked structure, actually. It is necessary to modify the classical procedure of systems analysis and adapt it to the specific nature
of the changeable networked structures of the 21st century.
The article discusses the issue of the conflict between social roles in the professional activity pursued by so-called liberal professions, especially by researchers. It offers a normative approach to the issue as covered in the Code of Ethics for Research Workers (Kodeks Etyki Pracownika Naukowego) and in the Code of Good Practices in Universities (Dobre Praktyki w Szkołach Wyższych). Emphasis has been placed on the types of conflicts and on their significance to the ethical aspect of professional
activity, accompanied by a simultaneous reminder that conflict tends to be a factor contributing to the axiological balance in society and to society’s efficiency.
What is law and what is teaching – remains disputable. The departure point shouldbe the notio n of law, which cannot be said to exist without reference to normativity, binding power and predictability. The obstacle in teaching law is that there are several centrifugal forces resulting in disintegration of law. These are, for example: creating fake sources of law such as binding recommendations, amending laws by lower-ranking acts, which is the specialty of the EU; informally adopting the
common law doctrine of stare decisis by Continental Judges; using the interpretation of law as a fig leaf for actually amending it; demanding the disregarding of national laws by judges if they come to the conclusion that national laws are in violation of the EU law by the EU Court, even if there is no procedural framework to do so. In teaching law, a teacher should promote theories and practices conducive to the cohesion of the legal system. Teachers have to take sides in the encounter of conflicting ideas and practices in the spirit of fighting for a better law.
Modern education has to play a role that involves teaching everyone core competencies (knowledge, skills, attitude) to enable them to adapt to the changing world. This act of teaching needs to take place at every stage of education – not just academic. One of the most important – and most dynamically changing – spheres of social life is law. The article discusses issues related to non-lawyers acquiring the content of law from different sources, especially from the texts of legislative acts. This also includes a proposal of incorporating teaching about the language of law into the core curriculum of post-primary education institutions as an element of lifelong learning, acting as a component of the European education area.
The aim of the research was to verify system solutions in the field of teaching law at the secondary school level. The authors analysed the main factors affecting the quality and quantity of matter related to law – the core curriculum, questions appearing on the secondary school-leaving examination and other local circumstances / related to a particular institution. According to the authors’ opinion, low legal awareness results from the underrepresentation of law at the secondary
school level. As a result of the analysis, authors came to the conclusion that the problem does not only lie in the underrepresentation of law in the secondary school curriculum, but is also a consequence of several imperfect solutions in the education system. In the last chapter, the authors suggested optimization solutions.
The legislative changes that take place in the area of higher education and science pose new challenges to higher education institutions and create a new framework of verification of their teaching and research activity. Among the many significantly changing aspects of functioning of the system of higher education and science, the definition of the mission of this system seems to be particularly interesting. The new Higher Education and Science Law Act imposes important regulations in this domain. Defining the mission of the system of higher education and science
refers directly to the values lying at the heart of the activity of institutions of higher education and science, including universities in particular. A defined mission of a university ensures a reference to the tradition and the position of this university in the social system, characterises its identity, and indicates the values the university protects and promotes in its activity. Also, a defined mission statement points to a university’s main goals set on the future and the environment in which it
functions. In this area, defining the mission is also one of the instruments used to manage a university.
The purpose of the presented analysis is to position the new university model introduced by the Act of 20 July 2018 – Law on Higher Education and Science in the field of knowledge economy, which is a segment of the dynamically developing digital economy as seen today. Right now, we can see the paradigm of the resource determining economic development becoming redefined. While in the past it was land, followed by capital and labour later on, at present it is more and more about
knowledge – but in an institutionalised form. Such knowledge increases the significance
of intangible assets as the factor behind development, i.e. intellectual technologies. Research-education institutions play a prominent part in generating and accumulating this knowledge. Therefore, the position and the significance of universities in the structure of acquisition and transmission of knowledge becomes redefined. This calls for new methods of managing quality, staff, projects, and university funds to be implemented – which means, in general, a new operating
model for universities With its origins in a social-economic diagnosis, the article has been based on
a normative analysis of the provisions establishing the new university model and uses this analysis to attempt to reconstruct the methods of knowledge management and to verify its suitability for the requirements set by the development of the digital economy and of the knowledge-based society.
Recent years in Poland have been marked by a heated discussion on the system of education in place. A significant contribution to the discussion was the 2018 Law on Higher Education and Science Act, redefining the current operating model of higher education institutions. Tertiary education and the way it is organised are set in a global environment with an indefinite number of stakeholders. The turbulent nature and changeability of this environment has surfaced even more strongly in the light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. All this requires looking at the design of curricula and the delivery of the process of education from a broader angle, identifying the internal and the external stakeholders and determining their expectations as well as the capabilities to affect higher education institutions and the very process of education. The article points to the area of research made in the said domain, offering a description of the current state of affairs.
Changes in the university model related to such phenomena as globalisation or technological development are important from the point of view of lawyer education. The aim of the study was to assess whether Polish legal provisions on the design of the programmes of law studies and the specific normative criteria for the evaluation of the quality of education allow a lawyer education model corresponding to a knowledge-based economy (KBE) to be formulated. The analysis showed that the provisions on the design of study programmes and the evaluation of the quality
of education do not allow a model study programme for the field of law, so that it can fully meet the requirements of the KBE, to be created. It was noted that creating a minimum normative standard in a legal education programme is necessary. Persons involved in the teaching of lawyers and beneficiaries of legal services should be involved in the development of this standard. The conducted research may improve legal solutions in such a way that they contribute to the improvement
of the process of creating study programmes in the field of law. The point is that they should be comparable and comply with GOW requirements. At the same time, they must ensure equal access to the legal professions for all law graduates.
The purpose of the article is to indicate the selected potential and desired consequences of establishing doctoral schools to educate doctoral students in the field of legal sciences, with a special consideration of the interdisciplinary nature of such schools. The paper addresses the Polish legal framework. The article proposes a thesis that doctoral schools have a chance to benefit the education of future doctors of law, especially thanks to their interdisciplinary nature, which involves
educating doctoral students of law together with representatives of other scientific disciplines. Other issues raised include also the opportunities and risks involved in the new form of doctoral education – including those resulting from some higher education institutions adopting only apparently interdisciplinary solutions. The article is an original work, the subject matter has not been covered in other academic papers, and concerns a new legal form of educating doctoral students – meaning
doctoral schools, which have been operating since the 2019/2020 academic year. The theses proposed in the article may be significant to both the theory and practice of educating doctors of law at Polish higher education institutions and research centres.
This text is a contribution to the discussion on the state of legal education in Poland. The author refers, in particular, to the article by A. Czarnota, M. Paździora and M. Stambulski regarding a hidden program in legal education, describes the existing situation and proposes changes that should be introduced in legal studies and teaching methods for future lawyers. On selected examples, she shows how one can oppose the domination of dataism in university teaching at law faculties in
Poland and at the same time educate competent lawyers and conscious citizens.
“You can get lost when standing still too.” These words of Edward Stachura are a metaphor of the main proposition of the paper. It aims to suggest a way to “set the ball rolling” by designing the paths of education for lawyers anew, with civil society in mind, and not just thinking of the requirements of legal training. Lawyers with knowledge in the field of information technology, interdisciplinary lawyers for business, lawyers-guardians of the rule of law and justice all need study programmes to take their predispositions, goals, skills, and abilities – all at different levels – into account. The purpose of the article is to shed light on the extra-legal barriers hindering the taking of a practical step ahead. The author shows three main ways of educating lawyers and explains why they are so important and why they call for changes in study programmes. Next, the author points to the obstacles faced by reformers and suggests exploring their actual impact on education in law and the level thereof.
This article provides an outline as to the functioning of “Amparo,” a Mexican mechanism of constitutional control. From the time of its introduction to Mexican constitutionalism in 1847, it has established itself as a robust constitutional control mechanism and has profoundly influenced Latin American constitutionalism and other countries in establishing similar mechanisms. This paper provides a summary of its evolution, functioning, and main procedural aspects.
Theoretical foundations of the animal protection law remain in statu nascendi. The lack of an established dogmatic systematization of this domain makes studies focused primarily on a comprehensive discussion of its practical aspects, also contributing to the development of theoretical and dogmatic bases of reasoning aiming to solve the practical issues of animal law. For this reason, the Animal Rights. Practical Guide by Karolina Kuszlewicz is a particularly valuable book. The author addresses various problems of the legal protection of animals in a competent and interesting manner.
Many of her interventions inspire further inquiries or critical comments. At the same time, the book illustrates how the dialogue between theoretical concepts and challenges of legal practice can co-create animal law as an emerging branch of the legal system together with an accompanying realm of jurisprudential research.