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Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia nad Prawem

Latest issue
SNIP (2018: 
Ministry of Education and Science: 

About the Journal

A critical attitude toward law is necessary for its proper creation, interpretation, application and functioning. It requires an o pen, reliable and independent approach to the law as an object of intellectual reflection.

The Authors are kindly invited to exercise critique of the law from the perspective of theory and philosophy of law, social sciences, including economics, sociology, psychology. The topics of the subsequent issues will focus on questions of public law. Above all, we are publishing original articles that might be of interest to the international academic community within the profile of the journal, and texts that are of social or economic importance to Poland.

The scientific legal journal The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies (ISSN 2080-1084, eISSN 2450-7938) is issued since 2009.

Papers in English and Polish are accepted, as well as in French, German, Spanish, Italian. The main version of the journal is the electronic one.

All papers published in The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies are available online for free to all users immediately upon publication (Open Access). No author is charged for publishing an article (APCs).

The journal is currently subject to long-term archiving in the National Library of Poland Repository.

The policy of The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies is to make it possible for all authors to deposit versions of their work in institutional or any other repository of their choice.

The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies provides immediate open access to its content under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 license. Authors who publish with this journal retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.




The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies 
Kozminski University
59 Jagiellońska St.
03-301 Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: krytykaprawa@kozminski.edu.pl

Editorial board

Prof. dr. hab. Jolanta Jabłońska-Bonca (Kozminski University, Poland),  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0894-9558, e-mail: jablonska@kozminski.edu.pl


Prof. Waldemar Hoff (Kozminski University, Poland) - administration, economy, global problems of contemporary world (current affairs), https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-wa...

Prof. Małgorzata Skórzewska-Amberg (Kozminski University, Poland), e-mail: mskorzewska@kozminski.edu.plhttps://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-ma...


Prof. Waldemar Hoff (Kozminski University, Poland) - administration, economy, global problems of contemporary world (current affairs), EU law, international law, https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-wa...
Prof. Jolanta Jabłońska-Bonca (Kozminski University, Poland) - theory and philosophy of law, legal rhetoric, legal ethics, metodology of science, security, law on higher education and science, constitutional law, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0894-9558

Prof. dr hab. Andrzej Jakubecki  (Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Poland) - civil proceedings, bankrupcy law, restructuring law, commercial law, international commercial law, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9073-4371

Prof. Joanna Kielin-Maziarz  (Kozminski University, Poland)

Prof. Toshiyuki Kono (Kyushu University, Japan) - international commercial law, private international law, legal comparative studies, intellectual property law, protection of cultural heritage, https://hyoka.ofc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/search/details/K000146/english.html


Prof. Adam Noga (Kozminski University, Poland) - economy and management, economic analysis of law, https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-dr-hab-adam-noga

Prof. Przemysław Polański (Kozminski University, Poland) - intellectual property law, EU law, information society, knowledge management, informatics, https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-pr...

Prof.  Małgorzata Skórzewska-Amberg (Kozminski University, Poland) - logic, legal informatics, criminal law, new technology law https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-ma...

Prof. Konrad Zacharzewski (Kozminski University, Poland) - commercial law, the law of obligations, digital currency law, capital market law, securities law, banking law, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9850-6020

Prof. Robert Zieliński (Kozminski University, Poland) - budget, tax, customs, foreign exchange law, banking, currency, financial law of governmental units, market law, financial, international financial law, https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-ro...

Prof. Kamil Zeidler (Gdansk University, Poland)  - theory and philosophy of law, aesthetic of law, legal rhetoric, protection of cultural heritage, legal comparative studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8396-3608

Anna Gorynska (Kozminski University, Poland), e-mail: gorynska@kozminski.edu.pl 


Dr. Wiktor Krzymowski (Kozminski University, Poland), e-mail: wkrzymowski@kozminski.edu.pl 
Dr. Ben Sassi (Kozminski University, Poland), e-mail: bsassi@kozminski.edu.plhttps://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/dr-ben-sassi


Prof. dr Adam Czarnota - chairman (Riga Graduate School of Law, Latvia), https://www.rgsl.edu.lv/about-rgsl/people/adam-czarnota

Prof. dr hab. Jan Barcz (Kozminski University, Warsaw, Poland), https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-dr-hab-jan-barcz

Prof. dr Giuseppe Contini ( Cagliari University, Italy)

Prof. dr Maksymilian Del Mar (Queen Mary College, University of London, United Kingdom), https://www.qmul.ac.uk/law/people/academic-staff/items/delmar.html

Prof. dr  Vladislav Fedorenko (Research Center for Forensic Examination on Intellectual Property of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine, Honored Lawyer of Ukraine), https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5902-1226

Prof. Fernando de Castro Fontainha (FGV Direito, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil), http://www.iesp.uerj.br/docentes/fernando-de-castro-fontainha/

Prof. dr Martin Krygier (University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia), https://www.unsw.edu.au/staff/martin-krygier

Prof. dr hab. Jacek Matuszewski (Lodz University, Poland)

Prof. Ignacio Aymerich Ojea (Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain) 

Prof. dr Gianluigi Palombella (Sant' Anna Scuola Universitaria Superiore Pisa, Italy), https://www.santannapisa.it/it/gianluigi-palombella

Prof. dr Stephan Parmentier (Catholic University Leuven, Belgium), https://www.law.kuleuven.be/linc/english/staff/00016825

Prof. dr hab. Maksymilian Pazdan (Kozminski University, Warsaw; University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland), https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-dr-hab-maksym...

Prof. dr hab. Alicja Pomorska, professor emeritus (Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,  Lublin, Poland)

Prof. Jiri Priban (University College Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom), https://www.cardiff.ac.uk/people/view/478897-priban-jiri

Prof. dr hab. Tadeusz Wiśniewski (Kozminski University, Warsaw, Poland)

Prof. dr hab. Fryderyk Zoll (Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, Universität Osnabrück, Germany), https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7263-2670

Prof. dr hab. Zdzisław Brodecki
(University of Business and Administration in Gdynia), Poland, https://wsaib.pl/o-uczelni/kadra/item/4153-zdzislaw-brodecki

Prof. UŁ dr hab. Henryk Dzwonkowski (University of Lodz), Poland, https://www.wpia.uni.lodz.pl/struktura/pracownicy/henryk-dzwonkowski.html

Prof. Sibel Hacımahmutoğlu ( Hacettepe University), Turkey, http://www.hukukfakultesi.hacettepe.edu.tr/tr/docdrsibel_hacimahmutoglu-21

Prof. dr hab. Ivan Halász (National University of Public Service; Centre for Social Sciences, Institute of Legal Studies. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary), https://jog.tk.hu/en/researcher/halasz-ivan

Prof. Javier Alonso Madrigal (Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Spain), https://web.comillas.edu/profesor/fjalonso

Prof. Artur Mudrecki (Kozminski University, Poland), https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-ar...

Prof. Petr Mrkývka (Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic), https://www.muni.cz/en/people/632-petr-mrkyvka

Prof. Anna Musiała (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland), https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5788-9144

Dr Volodymyr Nesterovych (Lugansk State University of Internal Affairs named after E.O. Didorenko, Ukraine; Scientific Advisory Board of the Supreme Court of Ukraine), https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2614-0426

Prof. Ihor Ozerskyi (Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, Mikolaiv, Ukraine), https://chmnu.edu.ua/ozerskij-igor-volodimirovich/

Prof. Magdalena Olczyk (Kozminski University, Poland),  https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/prof-alk-dr-hab-ma...

Prof. Ewa Popławska (The Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland)

Prof. Michal Radvan (Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic), https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9858-4555

Prof. Colin Scott (University College Dublin, Dublin, Irland), https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0486-8670

Prof. UWM dr. hab. Agnieszka Skóra (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn), Poland, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2169-5326

Prof. dr. Ruth Taplin (Centre for Japanese and East Asian Studies, London, UK)

Prof. Alexander Vashkevich (European Humanitarian University, Vilnius, Lithuania), https://en.ehu.lt/staff/aliaksandr-vashkevich/

Prof. UŁ dr hab. Mirosław Włodarczyk (University of Lodz, Poland), https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1974-1584

Prof. Jacques Ziller (Università di Pavia, Italy), https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7593-1895

Dr hab. Jacek Zrałek (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland), https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2813-8557



Prof. Ingrid Bejarano Escanilla (Spain)
Peter Janczyk (UK)
Dr. Ewa M. Kwiatkowska, https://www.kozminski.edu.pl/pl/spolecznosc/wizytowka/dr-ewa-kwiatkowska

Information for Authors


The Editorial Section of “The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies” journal would like to encourage authors to submit their texts for publication. The submitted texts should be prepared according to the guidelines summarised below:

Instructions for authors regarding submitting articles via the Scholar One Manuscript System are available here.

  • Before submitting a text via the abovementioned system, the author should check whether their text meets the following formal requirements:

1) the length of the text does not exceed 35 000 characters (with spaces and footnotes) in the case of an article, and 10 000 characters in the case of other types of texts

2) the text meets the editorial requirements included here

3) the text is anonymised

4) the text contains abstracts in Polish and English — both of under 150 words

5) the text contains keywords in Polish and English (up to 5)

6) the text includes a bibliography (list of references)

7) the text includes information about whether the research conducted has received funding or not

8) if the text includes tables or figures (saved in an editable format), they should be included in separate files

9) the text is written correctly in terms of language and style, and all citations and references are documented.

The Editorial Section may reject submissions on the grounds of their failure to meet the formal requirements, any scientific shortcomings, and any serious incompatibility of the topic and subject matter with the profile of the journal.


  • Scientific articles that have been submitted for review are reviewed by two reviewers (independently) appointed by subject editors. The Editorial Section makes every effort to appoint reviewers from outside the scientific unit affiliated by the author of the publication submitted for review.
  • The identity of the authors is not disclosed to the reviewers.
  • The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors.
  • Instructions for reviewers regarding submitting reviews via the Scholar One Manuscript System are available here.
  • The review (download review form) contains, among others, the reviewer’s unambiguous conclusion concerning the conditions of accepting the scientific article for publication or rejecting it.
  • In arbitrary cases (e.g. incompatible or contradictory reviews), the Editorial Section will decide whether a paper should be accepted for publication or not.

The Editorial Section does not charge any fees for the publishing of texts in “The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies” journal, and all content featured in the journal is available online, free of charge, and without any grace period (open access). Authors of texts do not pay any article processing charges (APCs).

“The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies” journal is archived in the repository of the National Library, and the contributing authors have the right to deposit their texts in other repositories.

All texts published in the journal are made available free of charge under the CC BY 4.0 license — Creative Commons Attribution 4.0, and the authors publishing in the journal — while retaining all copyrights — accept the terms and conditions of the CC BY 4.0 license.

In order to prevent plagiarism, the Editorial Section uses iThenticate plagiarism detection software.



  1. Purpose of the processing of personal data
    The Editorial Section of “The Critique of Law” processes the personal data of the authors and reviewers of the published texts for the purpose of carrying out and documenting the reviewing, editing, and publishing process.
  1. Scope of the processing of personal data
    The processed data include: name(s) and surname; professional title, academic degree or title; affiliation; address of residence, correspondence address, e-mail address, telephone number, ORCID, and other data provided by authors or reviewers and processed at the request of a given data subject.
  1. Duration of the processing of personal data
    The personal data required to carry out and document the course of the reviewing, editing, and publishing process may be processed for 10 years from the date of publishing of a given article in "The Critique of Law” or from the end of the reviewing process in the case of texts not approved for publishing. In the case of texts withdrawn by their authors before they become reviewed – by the date the consent is withdrawn, but not longer than a year from the moment a given text is withdrawn.
  1. Transferring and disclosing personal data
    The personal data referred to in item 2 may be made available to members of the Scientific Board, the Editorial Section, the Editorial Board of “The Critique of Law”, to the publisher of “The Critique of Law”, to entities keeping repositories and bases of academic texts (in the scope required to assess the quality of the reviewing, editing, and publishing process), and to state authorities upon a legitimate request.
  1. Personal data protection subject rights
    Those who have their personal data processed (data subjects) have the right to obtain information about the scope of the processed data, the right to access their data, the right to data portability, and the right to have their data rectified, erased, or have their processing restricted, to object to the processing of their data, and to lodge a complaint to the supervisory authority. The scope of the right to erase or restrict the processing of one’s personal data and of the right to object to the processing of one’s personal data is limited on account of the controller’s legitimate interest, because of the necessity to document information required for tax considerations or to document the reviewing, editing, and publishing process. The request to have one’s data processed no longer can be sent to: krytyka@kozminski.edu.pl
  1. Personal Data Controller
    Kozminski University, ul. Jagiellońska 57/59, 03-301 Warsaw, Poland
  1. Personal Data Protection Officer
    Paweł Sidor, e-mail: iod@kozminski.edu.pl, tel. no. +48 22 519 21 33.
  1. Correspondence address
    “The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies”, ul. Jagiellońska 57/59, 03-301 Warsaw, e-mail: krytyka@krytykaprawa.pl.




Information for Reviewers

  • Scientific articles that have been submitted for review are reviewed by two reviewers (independently) appointed by subject editors. The Editorial Section makes every effort to appoint reviewers from outside the scientific unit affiliated by the author of the publication submitted for review.
  • The identity of the authors is not disclosed to the reviewers.
  • The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors.
  • Instructions for reviewers regarding submitting reviews via the Scholar One Manuscript System are available here.
  • The review (download review form) contains, among others, the reviewer’s unambiguous conclusion concerning the conditions of accepting the scientific article for publication or rejecting it.

In arbitrary cases (e.g. incompatible or contradictory reviews), the Editorial Section will decide whether a paper should be accepted for publication or not.

Ethical standards


These statements below are based on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors https://publicationethics.org/core-practices

The following are the standards of expected ethical behaviour for all parties involved in publishing in the The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies journal: the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher.

All the articles submitted for publication in The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness.


Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial board is monitoring the ethical standards of scientific publications and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.

Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, or political ideology.

Publication decisions: The editor is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject a paper for publication is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal.

Confidentiality: The editor and the members of the editorial board must ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential while under review. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.

Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the editor and the editorial board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.

Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.

Editorial board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: Journals editors will consider retracting a publication if:

- they have a clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)

- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)

- it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.

Notice of the retraction should be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identify the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.

Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.


Reporting standards: Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and may cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.

Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.

Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.

Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.

Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.


Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.

Promptness: Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.

Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.

Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.

Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.


The Critique of Law. Independent Legal Studies 
Kozminski University
59 Jagiellońska St.
03-301 Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: krytykaprawa@kozminski.edu.pl