Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland wasthe main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of
support for the introduction of the euro.
Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509) of Polish citizens. The CAPI/CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used.
Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro
acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency.
Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society.
Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to present leadership limitations that infl uence leadership effectiveness and examine if it is possible to overcome these limitations.
Methodology: The study presents the results of literature analyses and the fi ndings of the recent research studies on leadership. It also refers to literature items that might be helpful in analyzing the leadership limitations.
Conclusions: The study indicates that some leadership behaviors that fall into a particular category are useful in understanding and refl ecting on their limitations, while other leaders’ actions enable them to overcome those limitations or use them to support leadership effectiveness.
Research limitations: This is a theoretical and conceptual study. It formulates propositions to further empirical research studies.
Originality: The study analyzes a number of behaviors from different leadership theories. These behaviors fall into four meta-categories: situational, transformational, authentic and boundary spanning. The study also provides information about leadership styles that are useful in understanding and overcoming leadership limitations.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that determine the Japanese approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR) to facilitate future empirical research in the Polish conditions.
Methodology: To conduct the research, the available literature concerning CSR, managerial behaviour and stakeholder relations in Japan was studied. The research was conducted onsite in Japan after consultation with local experts, both Japanese and foreigners, specialized in Japanese management and the economy.
Findings: The Japanese approach to CSR is strongly determined by their religious, philosophical, cultural, historical, economic and legal factors. It is proof of the concept of CSR contextuality, which provokes questions about the nature of the business relations of Japanese companies with their foreign counterparts and their style of management while investing abroad.
Research limitations: The methodology was only supposed to gain a general view of the factors infl uencing CSR in Japan. Studying more detailed issues with the use of empirical data was complicated because of the short time available for the research (6 weeks) and the relatively low level of transparency of the Japanese companies.
Value: The study helped in understanding managerial decisions and Japanese business behaviour in the context of corporate responsibility and the ethics of its everyday operations. It was the first research thoroughly analyzing many of the determinants of CSR in Japan, which may be valuable for any counterparts cooperating with the Japanese companies and foreign researchers analyzing Japanese management systems.
Purpose: Analyzing value created by marketing should cover at least two important points of view. The first is related to the problem of value created by marketing for customers, and the second is related to the value created for the organization (enterprise). This article is focused on the second point of view. Each organization formulates some expectations toward marketing, and next evaluates the results of using marketing in a more or less systematic way. The purpose of the article is to establish a theoretical model of this valuation using three dimensions: marketing effectiveness, marketing effi ciency and marketing productivity.
Methodology: This study was of a conceptual character. Findings: In presented concept, the expectations toward marketing and value created by marketing are expressed by marketing performance. In turn, marketing performance can be perceived in the three dimensions of
marketing effectiveness, marketing effi ciency and marketing productivity.
Originality: The problem of value created by marketing for the organization (enterprise) isn’t too often analyzed in the literature. Existing literature offers an analysis all these dimensions but in most cases in separate way or with some important inconsequences.
Purpose: The article is devoted to critical refl ection on the commonly used value chain model taking the perspective of contemporary role of client and technological advancement in multifaceted organizational development and management. It attempts to outline and thoroughly describe the new perspective of value creation and value management taking into account digital technologies and social media platforms.
Methodology: Deductive approach have been implemented, secondary data and sources have been used. Finally, the model of Value chain 2.0 was presented, conceptualized and described from both theoretical and practical sides.
Design: The fi rst part of the article is focused on the explanation of present potential of client for any enterprise. The second part attempts to explain the role of virtualization processes, exemplifi ed by social media, semantic web approach or virtual organization in the shift of value creation. Finally, the concept of value chain 2.0 is proposed and discussed.
Findings: There is a rapid transformation of value creation where linearity, control and inter organizational resources are gradually being replaced by network value creation where clients’ activities play pivotal role in organization performance and where value is defi ned in much broader way.
Practical implications: The conclusions have profound meaning for companies and organizations striving for engagement of clients, partners and employees in value creation processes. The paper presents both theoretical foundations along with practical implications for value co-creation.
Originality: The thorough and detailed analysis and interpretation of multifaceted shift and transformation of value creation and value management is presented. The article describes the ways the social media, digital technologies and contemporary marketing influence the way organization.
Purpose: Interest in older consumers as the subject of marketing strategy is growing in Western countries (Gunter, 1998). However, in Poland, this group is still neglected by marketers and perceived in stereotypical way, and its marketing potential is underestimated. The main goal of this research was to provide understanding of the contemporary older Polish population and especially older Polish consumers, including their values, needs,
attitudes, opinions and behaviors.
Methodology: In order to investigate the Polish “grey market,” we conducted survey research (CAPI) based on a representative quota – a random nationwide sample of n=1500 participants above 55 years old. Additionally, we also conducted qualitative research – 18 individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) at homes of consumers (ethnographic interviews).
Findings: Based on the factor and cluster analysis (Weinstein, 1994) from the quantitative survey, 5 segments of older Polish consumers were selected: Fulfi lled Optimists (14% of population), Bored with Life (17%), Passive Materialists (22%), Family-oriented Non-Paterialists (22%), and Excluded Traditionalists (25%). Segments differed in values, lifestyles, attitudes toward life, family, work and general life satisfaction. As a consequence of those psychological differences, segments differed in consumer behaviour, preferences and perception of marketing communication (advertising).
Originality: Our analysis shows that key areas, which determine particular consumer behaviour in each segment are – contrary to common belief – not demographic characteristics, but mainly psychological aspects (such as attitude to life, optimism, attitude to money, open-mindedness and general curiosity).
Purpose: The aim of the study is to discuss the problems related to consumer time valuation and its implications. This domain remains relatively unexplored in marketing literature.
Methodology: The author approached the time valuation problem in a synthetic and interdisciplinary way. To facilitate the analysis of time characteristics as a consumer resource and temporal decisions, the comparison with money was applied, which is an approach well established in the literature.
Findings: Time can be a source of value only to selected consumers, as not all perceive time as scarce. Mental accounting for time is diffi cult; hence consumers tend to use heuristics to arrive at their temporal decisions and prefer immediate discounting of temporal benefits. Contrary to a popular adage, time is not money, at least in the context of the majority of consumers’ decisions.
Research limitations/implications: Despite growth in the number of publications, knowledge of temporal aspects in consumer behavior is limited and fragmented. Less is known about how to turn the perceived value of time into customer value. Further investigation is needed to identify consumer groups that truly value time.
Practical implications: The knowledge of temporal aspects of consumer behavior, and how consumers value time, would be of particular use in the service industry, where the “when” of customer value is usually provided in the form of “convenience”.
Originality: This study sheds light on research gaps in the literature in an under-investigated subject, examining the link between the perceived value of time and possibilities to generate value based on temporal benefits.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what concepts should be used to explain how marketing contributes to value creation in business-to-business (B2B) relations?
Methodology: The method consists of: (1) using net present value (NPV) as a goal of B2B purchasing decisions and (2) analysing the supplier’s controlling system to differentiate between value drivers and value causes.
Findings: A conceptual framework of B2B value creation has been proposed. NPV-related product description is the main concept in the framework.
Originality: The study contributes to the B2B marketing theory by increasing the clarity of conceptual foundations by (1) proposing the NPV-relevant product description and (2) making a distinction between value drivers and causes of value.
Purpose: The aim of the study is to analyse marketing challenges facing Polish public universities. Polish universities must urgently adjust their educational offers to deep declines in internal demand and to increased internationalisation of the educational market. The author explores the impact of management decentralisation in faculties of higher education institutions upon their market orientation, relationships with the external world and commercialisation of educational services targeting foreign students.
Methodology: The study is based mostly on direct observations and an extensive review of international literature devoted to the model of the university of the future and its relationships with the environment. The author has been lecturing on marketing for many years; he also manages educational business programmes at a large public university in Poland where he acts in the capacity of a dean.
Findings: Future universities should develop an array of services based on the relationship marketing with key strategic partners (business, local authorities, students and graduates). The idea of a modern educational service should be based on an individual approach to students expanded with complementary services. Educational services should be developed interactively in cooperation with key stakeholders.
Practical implications: Polish public universities should become more marketing oriented and develop a set of commercial educational services addressed to foreign students and to entrepreneurial and internationally-oriented Polish students.
Originality/value: Conclusions formulated by the author result from his long personal experience and knowledge of the specifi city of the educational market in Poland and across the world and his experience in managing an interdisciplinary faculty of a large public university. The interdisciplinary approach to the subject combines elements of the relationship marketing and interactive development of new educational services.
Purpose: This article deals with the creation of the brand and what kind of value it creates for the owner and the customer.
Methodology: The article describes an insight on how to create strong brands, why many companies that based their success on a product now decide to create a branded product and how a brand adds value to both the owner of the brand as well as the customer.
Findings: The article presents that brands create value for the customers as well as the company or brand owner. Furthermore, the article deals with the creation of strong brands and the underlying factors.
Originality/value: This article helps to advance brand marketing theory as well as offers valuable implications and recommendations for practitioners, brand and marketing managers.
Purpose: The article contents are a synthetic presentation of the evolution of marketing and the hitherto development of social innovation as well as a comparison of the leading traits of both processes at the present stage of development. Based on this, there is an attempt to assess their impact on the social and economic development.
Methodology: This article is of a theoretical nature.
Findings: The idea and concept of marketing and social innovation have a great potential to serve socioeconomic development. To a certain degree, they have approximate or even common ideas and goals as well as similar concepts and effects. Social innovation is a support for marketing in the delivery of values and satisfaction to consumers and to a signifi cant part of the society. It also independently affects raising the quality of life of the society, owing to socialisation, diffusion and aid in the more effective use of technological, organisational, managerial and marketing innovations.
Value: The article is a part of the stream of current discussion on the place and role of marketing and social innovation in the contemporary economy and society.
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to test whether and to what extent the concept of CSV can be utilized in the marketing strategy of companies, and more precisely, whether and to what extent it can be used as a criterion for positioning the company in the market.
Methodology: The authors analysed the case of the Partnership for Health from the perspective of one partner, grocery retailer Biedronka. In addition, we have conducted consumer research among students to fi nd out if consumers have a positive perception of products with a social mission.
Findings: The research fi ndings indicate that, according to the respondents’ perception, products with a social mission could comprise a basis for a positioning strategy for Biedronka, but for now, many customers do not even know that Biedronka offers such products in cooperation with its partners. The lack of a promotional campaign aimed at educating buyers had a negative impact on project awareness. It can even be stated that its potential wasn’t exploited from a marketing viewpoint.
Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of the conducted research is the sampling procedure. The authors introduced their own scale for measuring the consumers’ approach to products with social missions. This scale can also be used for implementation of similar projects.
Originality: In the subject literature there is a cognitive gap connected with the use of CSV concept in corporate marketing strategies. The authors determined how this concept could be used in marketing with special regard to the positioning strategy. Additionally a special scale was designed for measuring consumers’ approaches to products with a social mission