en pl
en pl

Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia nad Prawem

Show issue
Year 6/2022 
Volume 14 
Issue 2

Combating the Illegal Employment of Third-Country Nationals in the Member States of the European Union

Oleg Yaroshenko
Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University

Roman Prokopiev
Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University

Mykola Inshyn
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Lesya Maliuha
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Viktoriia Hnidenko
Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University

6/2022 14 (2) Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia nad Prawem

DOI 10.7206/kp.2080-1084.531


The aim of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the legislation on the fight against illegal employment both at the supranational level of the European Union and at the EU Member States level, inter alia, in Poland, France, and Germany. The leading method in the study was the comparative-legal method. It helped to compare the peculiarities of the practice of European countries in the field of combating illegal employment in the EU Member States, as well as to identify how this issue is regulated. The results demonstrate that illegal employment destroys legal jobs, leads to the increase in unemployment and deprives the state of revenues such as tax and social contributions, etc. That is why international declarations and conventions should guarantee the right to work in the European Union for the citizens of non-European states.


  1. Act on National Labour Inspectorate, https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=78032 (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  2. Arnold S., Whelan S., Quinn E. (2017). Illegal Employment of Non-EU Nationals in Ireland. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute. [Google Scholar]
  3. Belova G., Marin N., Some Issues Related to the Irregular or Undocumented Migrants, “Kutafin University Law Review” 2017, Vol. 4(2), pp. 563–564. [Google Scholar]
  4. Borshchevska G., Bychkivsky O., Procedural Legal Relations in International Labor Law, “Law and Society” 2015, Vol. 6, pp. 78–83. [Google Scholar]
  5. Boswell C., Straubhaar T., The Illegal Employment of Foreign Workers: An Overview, “Intereconomics” 2014, Vol. 39(1), pp. 4–7. [Google Scholar]
  6. Code du travail, 2021, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/codes/id/LEGITEXT000006072050/ (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  7. Dei M., The Concept and Content of Harmonization of Labor Legislation of Ukraine with the Law of the European Union on Labor Protection, “Journal of Kyiv University of Law” 2011, Vol. 1, pp. 311–314. [Google Scholar]
  8. Directive 2009/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 providing for minimum standards on sanctions and measures against employers of illegally staying third-country nationals, 2009, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32009L0052 (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  9. European Migration Network, EMN Synthesis Report: Illegal Employment of TCNs in the European Union, 2017, https://emn.ie/publications/illegal-employment-of-third-country-nationals-in-the-european-union-emn-synthesis-report/ (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  10. Gerads M., Forscher jagen die Schattenwirtschaft, 2017, https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/bruttoinlandsprodukt-forscher-jagen-die-schattenwirtschaft-1.3223910 (accessed: 11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  11. Gulina, O., Legal Responsibility for Recruiting Illegal Migrants: The Experience of the EU and the US, The Institute for the Rule of Law, St. Petersburg 2013. [Google Scholar]
  12. International Labour Organisation Convention No. 143 concerning migrations in abusive conditions and the promotion of equality of opportunity and treatment of migrant workers, 1975, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201120/volume-1120-I-17426-English.pdf (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  13. Kaida N., General Theoretical Characteristics of Adaptation of Ukrainian Labor Legislation to EU Legislation, [in:] Theoretical Issues of Jurisprudence and Law Enforcement Problems: Challenges of the 21st Century, Scientific Institute of Public Policy and Social Sciences, Kharkiv 2020. [Google Scholar]
  14. Reyneri E., Illegal Immigration and the Underground Economy, [in:] The Challenges of Immigration and Integration in the European Union and Australia, University of Sydney, Sydney 2003. [Google Scholar]
  15. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ryazantsev S., Ochirova G., Methods of Combating Illegal Immigration (Experience of the USA, EU and Russia), “Polis. Political Studies” 2021, Vol. 2, pp. 46–63. [Google Scholar]
  17. Soova K., Keith L. and LeVoy M., Employers’ Sanctions: Impacts on Undocumented Migrant Workers’ Rights in Four EU Countries, Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants, Brussels 2015. [Google Scholar]
  18. Tangermann, J., Grote J., Illegale Beschäftigung von Drittstaatsangehörigen in Deutschland: Fokusstudie der deutschen nationalen Kontaktstelle für das Europäische Migrationsnetzwerk (EMN). Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF), Nürnberg 2017. [Google Scholar]
  19. Tarasevich T., Kortukova T., Legal Regulation of the Combating Illegal Migration within the European Union, [in:] Global Imperatives for Business and Law Development. 2nd International Scientific and Practical: Conference Proceedings, National University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv 2019. [Google Scholar]
  20. Tomashevski K.L., Yaroshenko O.M., Problems of Labour Legislation Codification in Belarus and Ukraine: History, Current Situation and Prospects, “Transition Studies Review” 2020, Vol. 27(2), pp. 41–50. [Google Scholar]
  21. United Nations, International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cmw.aspx (accessed: 16.11.2021). [Google Scholar]
  22. Yaroshenko O.M., Tomashevski K.L., The Impact of COVID-19 on Labour and Social Security Relations: Rule-Making Experience of Belarus and Ukraine, “Journal of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine” 2021, Vol. 28(2), pp. 211–221. [Google Scholar]
  23. Yaroshenko, O.M., Moskalenko, O.V., Velychko, L.Yu., Kovrygin, V.S., Property Civil Law Liability and Material Liability of Employees for Damage Caused to an Employer: On the Basis of Civil Law of Ukraine, “Asia Life Sciences: The Asian International Journal of Life. Sciences Supplement” 2019, Vol. 21(2), pp. 735–748. [Google Scholar]
  24. Yaroshenko O.M., Vapnyarchuk N.M., Burnyagina Y.M., Kozachok-Trush N.V., Mohilevskyi L.V., Professional Development of Employees as the Way to Innovative Country Integration, “Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics” 2020, Vol. 11(2), pp. 683–695. [Google Scholar]

Full metadata record

Cite this record

APA style

Combating the Illegal Employment of Third-Country Nationals in the Member States of the European Union. (2022). Combating the Illegal Employment of Third-Country Nationals in the Member States of the European Union. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, 14(2), 202-218. https://doi.org/ 10.7206/kp.2080-1084.531 (Original work published 6/2022AD)

MLA style

“Combating The Illegal Employment Of Third-Country Nationals In The Member States Of The European Union”. 6/2022AD. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, vol. 14, no. 2, 2022, pp. 202-218.

Chicago style

“Combating The Illegal Employment Of Third-Country Nationals In The Member States Of The European Union”. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia nad Prawem, 14, no. 2 (2022): 202-218. doi: 10.7206/kp.2080-1084.531.