en pl
en pl

Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem

Show issue
Year 12/2020 
Volume 12 
Issue 4

Juries and Justices of the Peace in the United States of America

Paweł Króliczek
University of Silesia in Katowice

12/2020 12 (4) Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem

DOI 10.7206/kp.2080-1084.411


The paper shows an American model of the participation of the society in the administration of justice. It is crucial for the Polish discussion about the involvement of public factor in that manner. The analysis is divided between the constitutional right to trial by jury and the institution of justices of the peace, which is unique for the Anglo-Saxon legal system. Research conducted here is the result of a detailed analysis of the case law of the Supreme Court of the United States and selected state courts that shaped the views of the American academia on this issue. Hopefully, this brief study will help to reform the Polish judicial process.


  1. Amar A.R., Reinventing Juries: Ten Suggested Reforms, “University of California Davis Law Review” 1995, 28. [Google Scholar]
  2. An Analysis of Alternative Constructions of the Requirement That Federal Jurors Be Competent Under State Law, “Yale Law Journal” 1954–1955, 64. [Google Scholar]
  3. Barnett J.D., Courts: Justice of the Peace Courts (Recommendations), “Oregon Law Review” 1942, 21. [Google Scholar]
  4. Carrington P.D., Trial by Jury, [in:] L.W. Levy, K.L. Karst (eds.), Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, Vol. 6, New York 2000. [Google Scholar]
  5. Chapman N.S., McConnell M.W., Due Process as Separation of Powers, “Yale Law Journal” 2012, 121. [Google Scholar]
  6. Clark J., Boccaccini M.T., Caillouet B., Chaplin W.F., Five Factor Model Personality Traits, Jury Selection, and Case Outcomes in Criminal and Civil Cases, “Criminal Justice and Behavior” 2007, 34. [Google Scholar]
  7. Davis C.J., Elkins E.R., Kidd P.E., The Justice of the Peace in West Virginia, Morgantown, WV 1958. [Google Scholar]
  8. Diamond S.S., Rose M.R., Murphy B., Revisiting the Unanimity Requirement: The Behavior of the Non-Unanimous Civil Jury, “Northwestern University Law Review” 2006, 100. [Google Scholar]
  9. Dolan R.J., Fenton W.B., The Justice of the Peace in Nebraska, “Nebraska Law Review” 1969, 48. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ewing A. Jr., Justice of the Peace: Bedrock of the Democracy, “Tennessee Law Review” 1950, 21. [Google Scholar]
  11. Farmer M.C., Jury Composition Challenges, “Law & Psychology Review” 1976, 2. [Google Scholar]
  12. Fassett J.D., New Deal Justice: The Life of Stanley Reed of Kentucky, New York 1994. [Google Scholar]
  13. Furr W.R., Justice of the Peace in Virginia: A Neglected Aspect of the Judiciary, “Virginia Law Review” 1966, 52. [Google Scholar]
  14. Gardner M.R., Punitive Juvenile Justice and Public Trials by Jury: Sixth Amendment Applications in a Post-McKeiver World, “Nebraska Law Review” 2012–2013, 91. [Google Scholar]
  15. Heller F.H., The Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: A Study in Constitutional Development, Lawrence 1951. [Google Scholar]
  16. Keebler R.S., Our Justice of the Peace Courts: A Problem in Justice, “Tennessee Law Review” 1930, 9. [Google Scholar]
  17. Kershen D.L., Vicinage, “Oklahoma Law Review” 1976, 29. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ketcham O.W., McKeiver v. Pennsylvania: The Last Word on Juvenile Adjudications? “Cornell Law Review” 1971–1972, 57. [Google Scholar]
  19. Landsman S., Appellate Courts and Civil Juries, “University of Cincinnati Law Review” 2002, 70. [Google Scholar]
  20. Lerner Lettow R., The Failure of Originalism in Preserving Constitutional Rights to Civil Jury Trial, “William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal” 2014, 22. [Google Scholar]
  21. Levy L.W., The Medieval Origins of Trial by Jury, [in:] Winters R. (ed.), The Right to a Trial by Jury, Greenhaven 2005. [Google Scholar]
  22. McNeil N.H., Schmid A.C., Constitutionality of the Fee System in Justice of the Peace Courts, “Notre Dame Lawyer” 1954, 29. [Google Scholar]
  23. McKenna W.J., Justice in the Minor Courts, “Temple Law Quarterly” 1952, 25. [Google Scholar]
  24. McVicker J.R., The Seventeenth Century Justice of Peace in England, “Kentucky Law Journal” 24 (1935–1936). [Google Scholar]
  25. Miller D.A.H., Text, History, and Tradition: What the Seventh Amendment Can Teach Us About the Second, “Yale Law Journal” 2012–2013, 122. [Google Scholar]
  26. Miller R.H., Six of One Is Not a Dozen of the Other: A Reexamination of Williams v. Florida and the Size of State Criminal Juries, “University of Pennsylvania Law Review” 1997–1998, 146. [Google Scholar]
  27. Murfree W.L., The Justice of the Peace: A Compendium of the Law Relating to Justices of the Peace – Their Powers and Duties – The Procedures in Justices’ Courts, With Forms of Process and Entries Used Therein, Saint Louis, MO 1886. [Google Scholar]
  28. Murray P.L., The Disappearing Massachusetts Civil Jury Trial, “Massachusetts Law Review” 2004, 89. [Google Scholar]
  29. O’Connor S.D., Don’t Just Stand There, Keynote Address at Arizona State University Conference on Arizona’s Peoples Courts: Proposals for Improvement 1–2, [in:] P.G. Urlich (ed.), The Magistrates’ Judicial Independence Handbook. [Google Scholar]
  30. Orfield L.B., Trial by Jury in Federal Criminal Procedure, “Duke Law Journal” 1962, 29. [Google Scholar]
  31. Partain G.L., The Justice of the Peace: Constitutional Questions, “West Virginia Law Review” 1967, 69. [Google Scholar]
  32. Pollock F., Maitland F., The History of English Law Before Time of Edward I, Vol. I (2nd ed.), Cambridge 1895. [Google Scholar]
  33. Potter L.F. Jr., Jury Trial of Crimes, “Washington and Lee Law Review” 1966, 23. [Google Scholar]
  34. Roots R., The Rise and Fall of the American Jury, “Seton Hall Circuit Review” 2011, 8. [Google Scholar]
  35. Schaffner J.E., The Seventh Amendment Right to Civil Jury Trial: The Supreme Court Giveth and the Supreme Court Taketh Away, “Baltimore Law Review” 2002, 31. [Google Scholar]
  36. Schultz M.S., The Jury Redefined: A Review of Burger Court Decisions, “Law and Contemporary Problems” 1980, 43. [Google Scholar]
  37. Shelfer L.F., Special Juries in the Supreme Court, “Yale Law Journal” 2016, 123. [Google Scholar]
  38. Sherr G., Brinton J., Business and Jury Trial: The Framers’ Vision Versus Modern Reality, “Ohio State Law Journal” 2010, 70. [Google Scholar]
  39. Siegel S.A., The Constitution on Trial: Article III’s Jury Trial Provision, Originalism, and the Problem of Motivated Reasoning, “Santa Clara Law Review” 2012, 52. [Google Scholar]
  40. Sixth Amendment: Right to a Jury Trial, “Supreme Court Review” 1979. [Google Scholar]
  41. Smith A., Saks M.J., The Case of Overturning Williams v. Florida and the Six-Person Jury: History, Law, and Empirical Evidence, “Florida Law Review” 2008, 60. [Google Scholar]
  42. Smith Ch.H., The Justice of the Peace in the United States, “California Law Review” 1927, 15(2). [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith D.G., The Historical and Constitutional Contexts of Jury Reform, “Hofstra Law Review” 1996, 25. [Google Scholar]
  44. Sperlich P.W., Trial by Jury: It May Have a Future, “Supreme Court Review” 1978. [Google Scholar]
  45. Spooner L., An Essay on the Trial by Jury, Boston 1852. [Google Scholar]
  46. The Justice of the Peace (notes), “North Carolina Law Review” 1904, 1(4). [Google Scholar]
  47. Thomas S.A., Blackstone’s Curse: The Fall of the Criminal, Civil, and Grand Juries and the Rise of the Executive, the Legislature, the Judiciary, and the States, “William & Mary Law Review” 2014, 55. [Google Scholar]
  48. Vanlandingham K.E., The Decline of the Justice of the Peace, “University of Kansas Law Review” 1964, 12. [Google Scholar]
  49. Wolfram Ch.W., The Constitutional History of the Seventh Amendment, “Minnesota Law Review” 1963, 57. [Google Scholar]

Full metadata record

Cite this record

APA style

Króliczek, Paweł (2020). Juries and Justices of the Peace in the United States of America. (2020). Juries and Justices of the Peace in the United States of America. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, 12(4), 87-104. https://doi.org/10.7206/kp.2080-1084.411 (Original work published 12/2020AD)

MLA style

Króliczek, Paweł. “Juries And Justices Of The Peace In The United States Of America”. 12/2020AD. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, vol. 12, no. 4, 2020, pp. 87-104.

Chicago style

Króliczek, Paweł. “Juries And Justices Of The Peace In The United States Of America”. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem, 12, no. 4 (2020): 87-104. doi:10.7206/kp.2080-1084.411.