en pl
en pl

Central European Management Journal

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 03/2022 
Tom 30 
Numer 1

Women Entrepreneurs’ Education Level, Political Skill, and Firm Performance: Political Influence and Human Capital Theories

Orkun Demirbağ
Gümüşhane University

Kübra Demirbağ
Gümüşhane University

Gülgönül Batı
Yalova University

03/2022 30 (1) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.69


Purpose: Because of the growing interest in the literature in education and political skill as facilitators of firm performance, this article aims to reveal whether there is a moderating role of women entrepreneurs’ political skill on the relationship between their education level and firm performance when firm- and entrepreneur-level characteristics remain under control.

Methodology: The study was conducted in Istanbul, Kocaeli, and Bursa, cities with the lowest gender gap in Turkey. The participants of the questionnaires were 291 entrepreneurs who are members of the Women Entrepreneurs Association of Turkey (KAGIDER), the Women Entrepreneur Members of Endeavor Turkey, and the TOBB Women Entrepreneurs. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to analyze the dataset.

Findings: When firm- and the entrepreneur-level characteristics remain under control, women entrepreneurs’ political skill shows a moderator role in the relationship between women entrepreneurs’ education level and firm performance.

Practical Implications: A bachelor’s degree or higher, along with political skill, allow women
entrepreneurs to increase their firm performance. Furthermore, the higher the political skill, the higher the effect of education level on firm performance.

Originality/Value: This is the first study to investigate the moderating role of political skill of women entrepreneurs in the relationship between education level and firm performance. Moreover, political influence and human capital theories are jointly applied to the theoretical model.


  1. Adjei, E.K., Eriksson, R.H., Lindgren, U., and Holm, E. (2019). Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(5–6), 357–377. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2018.1514074. [Google Scholar]
  2. Adomako, S., Danso, A., Uddin, M., and Ofori-Damoah, J. (2015). Entrepreneurs’ optimism, cognitive style and persistence. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 22(1), 84–108. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2015-0158. [Google Scholar]
  3. Adomako, S., Narteh, B., Danquah, J.K., and Analoui, F. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation in dynamic environments. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 22(5), 616–642. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0320. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahearn, K.K., Ferris, G.R., Hochwater, W.A., Douglas, C., and Ammeter, A.P. (2004). Leader political skill and team performance. Journal of Management, 30(3), 309–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2003.01.004. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahl, H. (2002). The Making of the Female Entrepreneur: A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women’s Entrepreneurship. Dissertation Series No 15. Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School. [Google Scholar]
  6. Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 595–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00138.x. [Google Scholar]
  7. Ahl, H., and Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end?. Organization, 19(5), 543–562. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508412448695. [Google Scholar]
  8. Akehurst, G., Simarro, E., and Mas‐Tur, A. (2012). Women entrepreneurship in small service firms: Motivations, barriers and performance. The Service Industries Journal, 32(15), 2489–2505. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2012.677834. [Google Scholar]
  9. Aldrich, H.A., and Martinez, M.A. (2001). Many are called, but few are chosen: An evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 41–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225870102500404. [Google Scholar]
  10. Allen, I.E., Elam, A., Langowitz, N., and Dean, M. (2008). Global entrepreneurship monitor: 2007 report on women entrepreneurship. Obtained from www.gemconsortium.com (10.05.2021). [Google Scholar]
  11. Alpkan, L., Ergün, E., Bulut, Ç., and Yılmaz, C. (2005). Şirket Girişimciliğinin Şirket Performansına Etkileri. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 6(2), 175–189. https://doi.org/10.31671/dogus.2019.270 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ammeter, A.P., Douglas, C., Ferris, G.R., and Goka, H. (2004). A social relationship conceptualization of trust and accountability in organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1), 47–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.02.003. [Google Scholar]
  13. Amoako-Kwakye, F.Y. (2012). Background characteristics and determinants of performance of women’s business operations in Agona and Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa districts, Ghana. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 13(3), 129–148. [Google Scholar]
  14. Anderson, R.C., and Reeb, D.M. (2003). Founding‐family ownership and firm performance: evidence from the S&P 500. The Journal of Finance, 58(3), 1301–1328. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6261.00567. [Google Scholar]
  15. Andrews, M.C., Kacmar, K.M., and Valle, M. (2016). Surface acting as a mediator between personality and attitudes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(8), 1265–1279. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-11-2015-0414. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ashourizadeh, S., Rezaei, S., Schott, T., and Vang, J. (2014). Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital: direct and reinforcing benefits for export. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 21(2), 246–267. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2014.059476. [Google Scholar]
  17. Atay, S. (2009). Politik Yeti Envanteri’nin Türkiye’de test edilmesi. 17. Ulusal Yönetim ve Organizasyon Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı (21–23 Mayıs 2009). Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Yayınları, 162, 891–896. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ayala, J.C., and Manzano, G. (2014). The resilience of the entrepreneur. Influence on the success of the business. A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology, 42, 126–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2014.02.004. [Google Scholar]
  19. Baron, R.A., Markman, G.D., and Hirsa, A. (2001). Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: Evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 923–929. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.923. [Google Scholar]
  20. Baron, R.A., and Markman, G.D. (2003). Beyond social capital: The role of entrepreneurs’ social competence in their financial success. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 41–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00069-0. [Google Scholar]
  21. Baron, R.A., and Tang, J. (2009). Entrepreneurs’ social skills and new venture performance: Mediating mechanisms and cultural generality. Journal of Management, 35(2), 282–306. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206307312513. [Google Scholar]
  22. Bartol, K.M., and Martin, D.C. (1990). When politics pays: Factors influencing managerial compensation decisions. Personnel Psychology, 43(3), 599–614. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb02398.x. [Google Scholar]
  23. Bartoš, P., Rahman, A., Horák, J., and Jacová, H. (2015). Education and Entrepreneurship in The SME Segment In Economic Transformation. Economics and Sociology, 8(2), 227–239. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2015/8-2/16. [Google Scholar]
  24. Basu, S., Sahaym, A., Howard, M.D., and Boeker, W. (2015). Parent inheritance, founder expertise, and venture strategy: Determinants of new venture knowledge impact. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(2), 322–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2014.06.002. [Google Scholar]
  25. Becker, G. (1964). Human Capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. [Google Scholar]
  26. Berrone, P., Gertel, H., Giuliodori, R., Bernard, L., and Meiners, E. (2014). Determinants of performance in microenterprises: preliminary evidence from Argentina. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(3), 477–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12045. [Google Scholar]
  27. Biggadike, R. (1979). The risky business of diversification. Harvard Business Review, 57(3), 103–111. [Google Scholar]
  28. Birley, S. (1989). Female Entrepreneurs: Are They Really Any Different?. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(1), 32–37. [Google Scholar]
  29. Boden Jr, R. J. and Nucci, A. R. (2000). On the survival prospects of men’s and women’s new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4), 347–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00004-4. [Google Scholar]
  30. Bolander, W., Satornino, C.B., Hughes, D. E., and Ferris, G.R. (2015). Social networks within sales organizations: Their development and importance for salesperson performance. Journal of Marketing, 79(6), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.14.0444 [Google Scholar]
  31. Bosma, N., Van Praag, M., Thurik, R., and De Wit, G. (2004). The value of human and social capital investments for the business performance of startups. Small Business Economics, 23(3), 227–236. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SBEJ.0000032032.21192.72. [Google Scholar]
  32. Bosma, N. and Kelley, D. (2018). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2018/2019 Global Report. Obtained from: https://www.gemconsortium.org/file/open?fileId=50213 (access: 10.05.2021). [Google Scholar]
  33. Bowen, D.D. and Hisrich, R.D. (1986). The female entrepreneur: A career development perspective. Academy of Management Review, 11, 393–407 https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4283366. [Google Scholar]
  34. Bozoğlu Batı, G. and İnel, M.N. (2015). Kadın Girişimci Profili Bağlamında Çatışma Düzeyleri ve Yatırım Tercihleri: Yalova İli Üzerine İnceleme. Marmara Üniversitesi Öneri Dergisi. 11(44), 101–119. https://doi.org/10.14783/od.v11i44.5000080006. [Google Scholar]
  35. Brouer, R.L., Douglas, C., Treadway, D.C., and Ferris, G.R. (2013). Leader political skill, relationship quality, and leadership effectiveness: a two-study model test and constructive replication, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(2), 185–198. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051812460099. [Google Scholar]
  36. Brown, T.C., and Hanlon, D. (2016). Behavioral criteria for grounding entrepreneurship education and training programs: A validation study. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(2), 399–419. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12141. [Google Scholar]
  37. Brüderl, J., Preisendörfer, P., and Rolf, Z. (1992). Survival chances of newly founded business organizations. American Sociological Review, 57, 227–242. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096207. [Google Scholar]
  38. Bruni, A., Poggio, B., and Gherardi, S. (2005), Gender and Entrepreneurship: An Ethnographic Approach. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203698891. [Google Scholar]
  39. Brush, C.G. (1992). Research on women business owners: Past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16, 5–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879201600401. [Google Scholar]
  40. Brush, C.G., and Vanderwerf, P. (1992). A comparison of methods and sources of obtaining estimates of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 157–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(92)90010-O [Google Scholar]
  41. Brush, C., and Hisrich, R. D. (1999). Women-owned businesses: Why do they matter. In Z.Acs(ed.) Are small firms important? (pp. 111–127). Their Role and Impact. Boston MA: Kluwe Academic Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5173-7_7 [Google Scholar]
  42. Brush, C., de Bruin, A., and Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8–24. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566260910942318. [Google Scholar]
  43. Burt, R.S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology, 110(2), 349–399. https://doi.org/10.1086/421787. [Google Scholar]
  44. Burt, R.S. (2005). Brokerage and closure: An introduction to social capital. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  45. Buttner, E.H., and Moore, D.P. (1997). Women’s organizational exodus to entrepreneurship: self-reported motivations and correlates with success. Journal of Small Business Management, 35, 34–46. [Google Scholar]
  46. Campbell, J.P. (1976). Contributions research can make in understanding organizational effectiveness. Organization and Administrative Sciences, 7(1), 2. [Google Scholar]
  47. Carter, S., Anderson, S., and Shaw, E. (2001). Women business ownership: A review of the academic, popular and internet literature. Report to the Small Business Service, UK. [Google Scholar]
  48. Carter, S., and Marlow, S. (2006). Female entrepreneurship: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives. In: N. Carter, C. Henry, B. O’Cinniede, and K. Johnston (eds.), Female entrepreneurship: implications for education, training and policy (pp. 11–36). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203013533. [Google Scholar]
  49. Carter, S., and Shaw, E. (2006). Women’s Business Ownership: Recent Research and Policy Developments. Small Business Service Research Report, London: DTI. [Google Scholar]
  50. Çelebi, N., and Sallan, S. (1997). Turizm Sektöründeki Küçük İşyeri Örgütlerinde Kadın Girişimciler. Ankara: KSGM. [Google Scholar]
  51. Cetindamar, D., Gupta, V. K., Karadeniz, E. E., and Egrican, N. (2012). What the numbers tell: The impact of human, family and financial capital on women and men’s entry into entrepreneurship in Turkey. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(1–2), 29–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2012.637348. [Google Scholar]
  52. Choi, Y.R., and Shepherd, D.A. (2005). Stakeholder perceptions of age and other dimensions of newness. Journal of Management, 31(4), 573–596. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206304272294. [Google Scholar]
  53. Chowdhury, S., Schulz, E., Milner, M., and Van De Voort, D. (2014). Core employee based human capital and revenue productivity in small firms: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2473–2479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.03.007. [Google Scholar]
  54. Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120. https://doi.org/10.1086/228943. [Google Scholar]
  55. Coleman, S. (2005). The impact of human capital measures on the performance of women-owned small firms. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 17(2), 39–55. [Google Scholar]
  56. Cong, C., Dempsey, M., and Xie, H.M. (2017). Political skill, entrepreneurial orientation and organizational justice: a study of entrepreneurial enterprise in China. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(1), 20–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-05-2015-0103. [Google Scholar]
  57. Cressy, R. (1999). Small business failure: Failure to fund or failure to learn? In: Z. Acs, B. Carlsson, and C. Karlsson (eds.). Entrepreneurship, small and medium-sized enterprises and the macroeconomy (pp 161–186). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  58. Crook, T.R., Todd, S.Y., Combs, J.G., Woehr, D.J., and Ketchen, D.J., Jr. (2011). Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 443–456. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022147. [Google Scholar]
  59. Cuberes, D., and Teignier, M. (2016). Aggregate effects of gender gaps in the labor market: A quantitative estimate. Journal of Human Capital, 10(1), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1086/683847. [Google Scholar]
  60. Davidsson, P., and Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00097-6. [Google Scholar]
  61. De Bruin, A., Brush, C.G., and Welter, F. (2006). Introduction to the special issue: towards building cumulative knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, 585–593. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00137.x. [Google Scholar]
  62. De Vita, L., Mari, M., and Poggesi, S. (2014). Women entrepreneurs in and from developing countries: Evidences from the literature. European Management Journal, 32(3), 451–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2013.07.009. [Google Scholar]
  63. Delmar, F. and Holmquist, C. (2004). Women’s entrepreneurship: Issues and policies. Report presented at the 2nd OECD Conference of Ministers Responsible for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Istanbul, Turkey, June. [Google Scholar]
  64. Demirdirek, H., and Şener, Ü. (2014). 81 İl İçin Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliği Karnesi, Tepav. Obtained from: https://www.tepav.org.tr/upload/files/1395051458-3.81_Il_Icin_Toplumsal_Cinsiyet_Esitligi_Karnesi.pdf (access: 11.05.2021). [Google Scholar]
  65. Dess, G. G., and Robinson, R. B. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: the case of the privately‐held firm and conglomerate business unit. Strategic Management Journal, 5(3), 265–273. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250050306. [Google Scholar]
  66. DuBrin, A.J. (1991). Sex and gender differences in tactics of influence. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 635–646. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1991.68.2.635. [Google Scholar]
  67. Ecevit, Y. (2007). Türkiye’de Kadın Girişimciliğine Eleştirel Bir Yaklaşım, Ankara: Uluslararası Çalışma Ofisi (ILO), 1.baskı. [Google Scholar]
  68. Elmuti, D., Khoury, G., and Omran, O. (2012). Does entrepreneurship education have a role in developing entrepreneurial skills and ventures’ effectiveness?, Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 83–97. [Google Scholar]
  69. Eroğlu, K. (2004). Kadın Kuruluşları İçinde Üniversite Kadın Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezlerinin Yeri ve Önemi. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokul Dergisi, 8(2), 23–31. [Google Scholar]
  70. Fang, R., Chi, L, Chen, M., and Baron, R.A. (2015). Bringing Political Skill into Social Networks: Findings from a Field Study of Entrepreneurs. Journal of Management Studies, 52(2), 175–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12107. [Google Scholar]
  71. Ferris, G.R., and Judge, T.A. (1991). Personnel/human resources management: a political influence perspective. Journal of Management, 17, 447–488. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700208. [Google Scholar]
  72. Ferris, G.R., Frink, D.D., Gilmore, D.C., and Kacmar, K.M. (1994). Understanding as an antidote for the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics as a stressor. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(13), 1204–1220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb01551.x. [Google Scholar]
  73. Ferris, G.R., Frink, D.D., Galang, M.C., Zhou, J., Kacmar, K.M., and Howard, J.L. (1996a). Perceptions of organizational politics: Prediction, stress-related implications, and outcomes. Human Relations, 49(2), 233–266. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900206. [Google Scholar]
  74. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Bhawuk, D.P.S., Zhou, J., and Gilmore, D.C. (1996b). Reactions of diverse groups to politics in the workplace. Journal of Management, 22, 23–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639602200102. [Google Scholar]
  75. Ferris, G.R., Berkson, H.M., Kaplan, D.M., Gilmore, D.C., Buckley, M.R., Hochwarter, W.A., et al. (1999). Development and initial validation of the political skill inventory. Article presented at the 59th annual national meeting of the Academy of Management. Chicago. [Google Scholar]
  76. Ferris, G.R., Perrewé, P.L., Anthony, W.P., and Gilmore, D.C. (2000). Political skill at work. Organizational Dynamics, 28(4), 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(00)00007-3. [Google Scholar]
  77. Ferris, G.R., Anthony, W.P., Kolodinsky, R.W., Gilmore, D.C., and Harvey, M.G. (2002). Development of political skill. In: C. Wankel and R. DeFillippi (eds.), Research in management education and development, Volume 1: Rethinking management education for the 21st century (pp. 3–25). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  78. Ferris, G.R., Treadway, D.C., Kolodinsky, R.W., Hochwater, W.A., Kacmar, C.J., Douglas, C., and Frink, D.D. (2005). Development and validation of the political skill inventory. Journal of Management, 31(1), 126–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206304271386. [Google Scholar]
  79. Ferris, G., Treadway, D., Perrewé, P., Brouer, R., Douglas, C., and Lux, S. (2007). Political skill in organizations. Journal of Management, 33(3), 290–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206307300813. [Google Scholar]
  80. Fischer, E., Reuber, R., and Dyke, L. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), 151–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(93)90017-Y. [Google Scholar]
  81. Galbreath, J., and Galvin, P. (2008). Firm factors, industry structure and performance variation: New empirical evidence to a classic debate. Journal of Business Research, 61(2), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.009. [Google Scholar]
  82. Ganotakis, P. (2012). Founders’ human capital and the performance of UK new technology based firms. Small Business Economics, 39(2), 495–515. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-010-9309-0. [Google Scholar]
  83. GEM (2021). How GEM defines entrepreneurship. Obtained from: https://www.gemconsortium.org/wiki/1149 (access: 15.05.2021). [Google Scholar]
  84. Gimeno, J., Folta, T., Cooper, A., and Woo, C. (1997). Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 750–783. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393656. [Google Scholar]
  85. Granger, S., Neville, L., and Turner, N. (2020). Political knowledge at work: Conceptualization, measurement, and applications to follower proactivity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 93(2), 431–471. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12293. [Google Scholar]
  86. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481–510. https://doi.org/10.1086/228311. [Google Scholar]
  87. Gül, S.S., and Altındal, Y. (2016). Türkiye’de Kadın Girişimciliğin Serüveni: Başarı Mümkün Mü?. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 21(4), 1361–1377. [Google Scholar]
  88. Gundry, L.K., Ben-Yoseph, M., and Posig, M. (2002). Contemporary perspectives on women’s entrepreneurship: a review and strategic recommendations. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 10, 67–86. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495802000141. [Google Scholar]
  89. Guo, L.X., Liu, C.F., and Yain, Y.S. (2020). Social entrepreneur’s psychological capital, political skills, social networks and new venture performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 925. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00925. [Google Scholar]
  90. Gupta, V.K., Turban, D.B., Wasti, S.A., and Sikdar, A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2), 397–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00296.x. [Google Scholar]
  91. Gusman, Y., and Febrian, E. (2016). The impact of managerial cognition, human capital and social capital on strategic entrepreneurship and firm performance: Evidence from Indonesian Islamic Bank Industry. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 15, 82–94. [Google Scholar]
  92. Haddad, G., Esposito, M., and Tse, T. (2016). The social cluster of gender, agency and entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 28(4), 431–450. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2016.077572. [Google Scholar]
  93. Hampel-Milagrosa, A., Loewe, M., and Reeg, C. (2015). The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India, and the Philippines. World Development, 66, 118–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.08.005. [Google Scholar]
  94. Harris, J.N., Ferris, G.R., Summers, J.K., and Munyon, T.P. (2016). The role of political skill in relationship development, work and social networks, and work effectiveness. In: D.L. Stone and J.H. Dulebohn (eds.), Research in human resource management (Vol. 1). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  95. Hayek, M., Randolph-Seng, B., Atinc, G., and Montalvo, D. (2018). The influence of political skill on career success in an Ecuadorian family firm: the mediating role of affective commitment. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 18(2), 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595818768347. [Google Scholar]
  96. Heilman, M.E., and Chen, J.J. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a solution: the allure of self-employment for women and minorities. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 347–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00021-4. [Google Scholar]
  97. Henry, C. (2007). Women Entrepreneurs. In: C. Wankel (ed.), 21stcentury management: A reference handbook (Vol. 1, pp. 51–59). London: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412954006.n6. [Google Scholar]
  98. Henry, C., Foss, L., and Ahl, H. (2015). Gender and entrepreneurship research: a review of methodological approaches. International Small Business Journal, 34(3), 217–241. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242614549779. [Google Scholar]
  99. Hessels, J., and Terjesen, S. (2008). Entrepreneurial career capital, innovation and new venture export orientation. Scientific Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs, SMEs and Entrepreneurship Programme financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague. [Google Scholar]
  100. Hisrich, R., and Drnovsek, M. (2002). Entrepreneurship and small business research: a European perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 9(2), 172–222. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000210427348. [Google Scholar]
  101. Hmieleski, K.M., and Baron, R. A. (2008). When does entrepreneurial self‐efficacy enhance versus reduce firm performance? Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2(1), 57–72. https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.42. [Google Scholar]
  102. Hmieleski, K.M., and Baron, R.A. (2009). Entrepreneurs’ optimism and new venture performance: A social cognitive perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 473–488. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.41330755. [Google Scholar]
  103. Holmquist, C., and Sundin, E. (1989). The growth of women’s entrepreneurship — push or pull factors? Article presented to the EIASM Conference on Small Business, University of Durham Business School, Durham. [Google Scholar]
  104. Holt, R., and Macpherson, A. (2010). Sensemaking, rhetoric and the socially competent entrepreneur. International Small Business Journal, 28(1), 20–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242609350822 [Google Scholar]
  105. Huang, K.P. (2017). Entrepreneurial education: The effect of entrepreneurial political skill on social network, tacit knowledge, and innovation capability. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(8), 5061–5072. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00982a. [Google Scholar]
  106. Jackall, R. (1988). Moral mazes: The world of corporate managers. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 1(4), 598–614. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01390690 [Google Scholar]
  107. Jennings, J., and Brush, C. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature. Academy of Management Annals. https://doi.org/10.1080 /19416520.2013.782190. [Google Scholar]
  108. Johansson, J., Malmström, M., Lahti, T., and Wincent, J. (2021). Oh, it’s complex to see women here, isn’t it and this seems to take all my attention! A repertory grid approach to capture venture capitalists cognitive structures when evaluating women entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15, e00218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2020.e00218. [Google Scholar]
  109. Kacmar, K.M., and Ferris, G.R. (1991). Perceptions of organizational politics scale (POPS): Development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(1), 193–205. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164491511019. [Google Scholar]
  110. Kamberidou, I. (2020). “Distinguished” women entrepreneurs in the digital economy and the multitasking whirlpool. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0114-y. [Google Scholar]
  111. Kalaycı, Ş. (2009). Spss uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri. Ankara: Asil Yayın. [Google Scholar]
  112. Kauranen, I. (1993). The success of a newly established industrial company. Helsinki University of Technology. Institute of Industrial Management 7. Dissertation. [Google Scholar]
  113. Kelley, D.J., Singer, S., and Herrington, M. (2012). The global entrepreneurship monitor: 2011 global report. Wellesley: Babson College. [Google Scholar]
  114. Kim, T.T., Karatepe, O.M., and Chung, U.Y. (2019). Got political skill? The direct and moderating impact of political skill on stress, tension and outcomes in restaurants. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1367–1389. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-01-2018-0014. [Google Scholar]
  115. Kimosop, J., Korir, M., and White, M. (2016). The moderating effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between strategic capabilities and firm performance in women-owned entrepreneurial ventures in Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 33, 242–256. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.1399. [Google Scholar]
  116. Labianca, G., and Brass, D.J. (2006). Exploring the social ledger: Negative relationships and negative asymmetry in social networks in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 31(3), 596–614. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2006.21318920. [Google Scholar]
  117. Lafuente, E., and Robetino, R. (2011). Human capital and growth in Romanian small firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18(1), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001111106442. [Google Scholar]
  118. Lans, T., Blok, V., and Gulikers, J. (2016). Show me your network and I’ll tell you who you are: social competence and social capital of early-stage entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 27(7/8), 458–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2015.1070537. [Google Scholar]
  119. Lawong, D., Ferris, G., Hochwarter, W., and Maher, L. (2019). Recruiter political skill and organization reputation effects on job applicant attraction in the recruitment process: A multi-study investigation. Career Development International, 24(4), 278–296. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-01-2019-0007. [Google Scholar]
  120. Lechner, C., Dowling, M., and Welpe, I. (2006). Firm networks and firm development: The role of the relational mix. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(4), 514–540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.02.004. [Google Scholar]
  121. Lerner, M., Brush, C., and Hisrich, R. (1997). Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(4), 315–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(96)00061-4. [Google Scholar]
  122. Levy, D. A., Collins, B. E., and Nail, P. R. (1998). A new model of interpersonal influence characteristics. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13(4), 715–733. [Google Scholar]
  123. Lewis, P. (2006). The quest for invisibility: Female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship. Gender, Work & Organization, 13(5), 453–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00317.x. [Google Scholar]
  124. Lewis, P. (2009). The female entrepreneur: a new entrepreneurial identity and a new gendered challenge for women business owners. article presented at the 26th EURAM Conference, Liverpool, May. [Google Scholar]
  125. Li, H., Zhang, Y., and Chan, T.S. (2005). Entrepreneurial Strategy Making and Performance in China’s New Technology Ventures: The Contingency Effect of Environments and Firm Competences. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 16, 37–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hitech.2005.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  126. Link, A. N., and Strong, D.R. (2016). Gender and entrepreneurship: An annotated bibliography. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 12(4–5), 287–441. https://doi.org/10.1561/0300000068. [Google Scholar]
  127. Love, J. H., Roper, S., and Zhou, Y. (2016). Experience, age and exporting performance in UK SMEs. International Business Review, 25(4), 806–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2015.10.001. [Google Scholar]
  128. Luthans, F., Hodgetts, R.M., and Rosenkrantz, S.A. (1988). Real managers. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. [Google Scholar]
  129. Lvina, E., Maher, L.P., and Harris, J.N. (2017). Political skill, trust, and efficacy in teams. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 24(1), 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051816657984. [Google Scholar]
  130. Madsen, H., Neergaard, H., and Ulhoi, J. (2003). Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship and human capital. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(4), 426–434. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000310504738. [Google Scholar]
  131. Mainiero, L.A. (1994). On breaking the glass ceiling: the political seasoning of powerful women executives. Organizational Dynamics, 22, 4–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(94)90075-2. [Google Scholar]
  132. Mann, S. (1995). Politics and power in organizations: Why women lose out. Leadership & Organization development Journal, 16(2), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739510082271. [Google Scholar]
  133. Manolova, T.S., Brush, C.G., Edelman, L.F., and Elam, A. (2020). Pivoting to stay the course: How women entrepreneurs take advantage of opportunities created by the COVID-19 pandemic. International Small Business Journal, 38(6), 481–491. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620949136. [Google Scholar]
  134. Markman, G.D., and Baron, R.A. (2003). Person–entrepreneurship fit: why some people are more successful as entrepreneurs than others. Human resource management review, 13(2), 281–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00018-4. [Google Scholar]
  135. Marlow, S. (2006). A safety net or ties that bind? Women, welfare and self-employment. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 26, 397–410. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330610690541. [Google Scholar]
  136. Marlow, S., and Martinez Dy, A. (2018). Annual review article: Is it time to rethink the gender agenda in entrepreneurship research? International Small Business Journal, 36(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242617738321. [Google Scholar]
  137. Martin, G., and Staines, H. (1994). Managerial competencies in Small firms. Journal of Management Development, 13(7), 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719410063396. [Google Scholar]
  138. Martinez Dy, A., and Marlow, S. (2017). Women entrepreneurs and their ventures: complicating categories and contextualising gender. In: C. Henry, T. Nelson and K. Lewis (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Global Female Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315794570-2. [Google Scholar]
  139. Marvel, M.R., Davis, J.L., and Sproul, C.R. (2016). Human capital and entrepreneurship research: A critical review and future directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40(3), 599–626. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12136. [Google Scholar]
  140. Matikka, A. (2002). Measuring the performance of owner-managed firms: a systems approach. Helsinki School of Economics. Acta Universitatis Oeconomicae Helsingiensis A198. Dissertation. [Google Scholar]
  141. McAllister, C.P., Ellen III, B.P., and Ferris, G.R. (2018). Social influence opportunity recognition, evaluation, and capitalization: Increased theoretical specification through political skill’s dimensional dynamics. Journal of Management, 44(5), 1926–1952. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316633747. [Google Scholar]
  142. Mehra, A., Kilduff, M., and Brass, D.J. (2001). The social networks of high and low self-monitors: Implications for workplace performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(1), 121–146. https://doi.org/10.2307/2667127. [Google Scholar]
  143. Miller, A., and Camp, B. (1985). Exploring determinants of performance in corporate ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(85)90009-6. [Google Scholar]
  144. Minniti, M. (2009). Gender issues in entrepreneurship. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 5(7–8), 497–621. https://doi.org/10.1561/0300000021. [Google Scholar]
  145. Minniti, M., Arenius, P., and Langowitz, N. (2005). 2004 Global entrepreneurship monitor special topic report: Women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: Center for Women’s Leadership at Babson College. [Google Scholar]
  146. Mintzberg, H. (1983). Power in and around organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. [Google Scholar]
  147. Mintzberg, H. (1985). The organization as political arena. Journal of Management Studies, 22(2), 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1985.tb00069.x. [Google Scholar]
  148. Mirchandani, K. (1999). Feminist insight on gendered work: new directions in research on women and entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(4), 224–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.00085. [Google Scholar]
  149. Moore, D.P. (1990). An examination of present research on the female entrepreneur—Suggested research strategies for the 1990’s. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 275–281. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00380327. [Google Scholar]
  150. Munyon, T.P., Summers, J.K., Thompson, K.M., and Ferris, G.R. (2015). Political skill and work outcomes: A theoretical extension, meta‐analytic investigation, and agenda for the future. Personnel Psychology, 68(1), 143–184. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12066. [Google Scholar]
  151. Neck, H.M., and Greene, P.G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 55–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2010.00314.x. [Google Scholar]
  152. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. [Google Scholar]
  153. Omrane, A. (2015). Entrepreneurs’ social capital and access to external resources: the effects of social skills. Int. J. Entrep. Small Bus. 24, 357–382. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2015.067463. [Google Scholar]
  154. Öğüt, A. (2006). Türkiye’de Kadın Girişimciliğin ve Yöneticiliğin Önündeki Güçlükler: Cam Tavan Sendromu. Çanakkale 18 Mart Üniversitesi Girişimcilik ve Kalkınma Dergisi, 1(1), 56–78. [Google Scholar]
  155. Pasanen, M. (2003). In Search of Factors Affecting SME Performance. The Case of Eastern Finland. Department of Business and Management, University of Kuopio, Kuopio. [Google Scholar]
  156. Perrewé, P.L., Ferris, G.R., Frink. D.D., and Anthony W.P. (2000). Political Skill: An antidote for workplace stressors. Academy of Management Executive. 14(3), 115–123. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2000.4468071. [Google Scholar]
  157. Perrewé, P.L., Zellars, K.L., Ferris, G.R., Rossi, A.M., Kacmar, C.J., and Ralston, D.A. (2004). Neutralizing job stressors: Political skill as an antidote to the dysfunctional consequences of role conflict. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 141–152. https://doi.org/10.2307/20159566. [Google Scholar]
  158. Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organizations (Vol. 33). Marshfield, MA: Pitman. [Google Scholar]
  159. Pfeffer, J., and Salancik, G.R. (1978). The external control of organisations. New York, 175. [Google Scholar]
  160. Phipps, S.T., and Prieto, L.C. (2015). Women vs men in entrepreneurship: a comparison of the sexes on creativity, political skill, and entrepreneurial intentions. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 21(1), 32–43. [Google Scholar]
  161. Pinazo-Dallenbach, P., Mas-Tur, A., and Lloria, B. (2016). Using high-potential firms as the key to achieving territorial development. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1412–1417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.117. [Google Scholar]
  162. Poggesi, S., Mari, M., and De Vita, L. (2016). What’s new in female entrepreneurship research? Answers from the literature. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(3), 735–764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-015-0364-5. [Google Scholar]
  163. Prasad, V.K., Naidu, G.M., Kinnera Murthy, B., Winkel, D.E., and Ehrhardt, K. (2013). Women entrepreneurs and business venture growth: an examination of the influence of human and social capital resources in an Indian context. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 26(4), 341–364. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2013.821758. [Google Scholar]
  164. Radipere, S., and Dhliwayo, S. (2014). The role of gender and education on small business performance in the South African small enterprise sector. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9), 104–110. [Google Scholar]
  165. Rizzo, A.M., and Mendez, C. (1988). Making things happen in organizations: does gender make a difference? Public Personnel Management, 17(1), 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/009102608801700102. [Google Scholar]
  166. Robichaud, Y., Cachon, J. C., and McGraw, E. (2015). Why are female-owned businesses smaller? an empirical study in Canada and the United States. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 16(1), 62. [Google Scholar]
  167. Robinson, R., Pearce, J., Vozikis, G., and Mescon, T. (1984). The relationship between stage of development and small firm planning and performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 22, 45–52. [Google Scholar]
  168. Rosca, E., Agarwal, N., and Brem, A. (2020). Women entrepreneurs as agents of change: A comparative analysis of social entrepreneurship processes in emerging markets. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 157, 120067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120067. [Google Scholar]
  169. Ross, D.G., and Shin, D.H. (2019). Women and Entrepreneurship: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3259596. [Google Scholar]
  170. Rutherford, M.W., and Buller, P.F. (2007). Searching for the legitimacy threshold. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(1), 78–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492606297546. [Google Scholar]
  171. Santos, G., Marques, C.S., and Ferreira, J.J. (2018). A look back over the past 40 years of female entrepreneurship: mapping knowledge networks. Scientometrics, 115(2), 953–987. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2705-y. [Google Scholar]
  172. Schiller, B.R., and Crewson, P.E. (1997). Entrepreneurial origins: a longitudinal inquiry. Economic Inquiry, 35(3), 523–531. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb02029.x. [Google Scholar]
  173. Schultz, T.W. (1961). Investment in human capital. American Economic Review, 51(1), 1–17. [Google Scholar]
  174. Schwartz, E.B. (1976). Entrepreneurship-new female frontier. Journal of Contemporary Business, 5(1), 47–76. [Google Scholar]
  175. Semadar, A., Robins, G., and Ferris, G.R. (2006). Comparing the validity of multiple social effectiveness constructs in the prediction of managerial job performance. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27, 443–461. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.385. [Google Scholar]
  176. Shrader, R., and Siegel, D.S. (2007). Assessing the relationship between human capital and firm performance: Evidence from technology–based new ventures. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice, 31(6), 893–908. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00206.x. [Google Scholar]
  177. Spencer, L.M., and Spencer, S.M. (1993). Competence at work: Models for superior performance. New York: John Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  178. Stam, W., and Elfring, T. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance: The moderating role of intra-and extraindustry social capital. Academy of Management Journal, 51(1), 97–111. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2008.30744031. [Google Scholar]
  179. Staniewski, M. W. (2016). The contribution of business experience and knowledge to successful entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research, 69(11), 5147–5152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.095. [Google Scholar]
  180. Storey, D. (1994). Understanding the small business sector. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  181. Sullivan, D.M., and Meek, W.R. (2012). Gender and Entrepreneurship: A review and process model. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27, 428–458. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941211235373. [Google Scholar]
  182. Takahashi, S.I.Y. (2009). Entrepreneurs as decisive human resources and business. Performance for the Lao SMEs. Chinese Business Review, 8(7), 29–47. [Google Scholar]
  183. Tan, J. (2007). Breaking the ‘Bamboo Curtain’ and the ‘Glass Ceiling:’ The Experience of Women Entrepreneurs in High-Tech Industries in an Emerging Market.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 547–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9454-9. [Google Scholar]
  184. Ting, I.W.K., Kweh, Q.L., Lean, H.H., and Ng, J.H. (2016). Ownership structure and firm performance: The role of R&D. Institutions and Economies, 8(4), 1–21. [Google Scholar]
  185. Tocher, N., Oswald, S.L., Shook, C.L., and Adams, G. (2012). Entrepreneur political skill and new venture performance: extending the social competence perspective. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(5–6), 283–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2010.535856. [Google Scholar]
  186. Todd, S.Y., Harris, K.J., Harris, R.B., and Wheeler, A.R. (2009). Career success implications of political skill. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(3), 279–304. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.149.3.279-304. [Google Scholar]
  187. Treadway, D.C., Adams, G., Hanes, T. J., Perrewé, P. L., Magnusen, M. J., and Ferris, G. R. (2014). The roles of recruiter political skill and performance resource leveraging in NCAA football recruitment effectiveness. Journal of Management, 40(6), 1607–1626. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206312441836. [Google Scholar]
  188. Treadway, D.C., Hochwarter, W.A., Ferris, G.R., Kacmar, C.J., Douglas, C., Ammeter, A.P., and Buckley, M.R. (2004). Leader political skill and employee reactions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(4), 493–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.05.004. [Google Scholar]
  189. Tükeltürk, Ş.A., and Perçin, Ş.N.(2008). Turizm Sektöründe Kadın Çalışanların Karşılaştıkları Kariyer Engelleri ve Cam Tavan Sendromu: Cam Tavanı Kırmaya Yönelik Stratejiler, Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 113–128. [Google Scholar]
  190. Türk Tuborg, A.Ş., and KAGİDER (2019). Türkiye Kadın Girişimcilik Endeksi – 2019 Araştırma Raporu. Obtained from: https://kagider.org/docs/default-source/kagider-raporlar/kagider-t%C3%BCrk-tuborg-kad%C4%B1n_girisimcilik_endeksi_2019.pdf?sfvrsn=6 (access:15.05.2021). [Google Scholar]
  191. Turulja, L., and Bajgoric, N. (2019). Innovation, firms’ performance and environmental turbulence: Is there a moderator or mediator? European Journal of Innovation Management, 22(1), 213–232. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJIM-03-2018-0064. [Google Scholar]
  192. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., and Wright, M. (2008). Opportunity identification and pursuit: does an entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Business Economics, 30(2), 153–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-006-9020-3. [Google Scholar]
  193. Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M., and Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of business venturing, 26(3), 341–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.09.004. [Google Scholar]
  194. Van der Sluis, J., Van Praag, M., and Vijverberg, W. (2008). Education and entrepreneurship selection and performance: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Economic Surveys, 22(5), 795–841. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2008.00550.x. [Google Scholar]
  195. Van Praag, C.M., and Cramer, J.S. (2001). The roots of entrepreneurship and labour demand: Individual ability and low risk aversion. Economica, 68(269), 45–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0335.00232. [Google Scholar]
  196. Wee, L., and Brooks, A. (2012). Negotiating gendered subjectivity in the enterprise culture: Metaphor and entrepreneurial discourses. Gender, Work & Organization, 19(6), 573–591. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2010.00543.x. [Google Scholar]
  197. Wei, L.Q., Chiang, F.F., and Wu, L.Z. (2012). Developing and utilizing network resources: Roles of political skill. Journal of Management Studies, 49, 381–402. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00987.x. [Google Scholar]
  198. Wei, L.Q., Liu, J., Chen, Y.Y., and Wu, L.Z. (2010). Political skill, supervisor-subordinate guanxi and career prospects in Chinese firms. Journal of Management Studies, 47, 437–454. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00871.x. [Google Scholar]
  199. Welsh, D.H., Kaciak, E., and Shamah, R. (2018). Determinants of women entrepreneurs’ firm performance in a hostile environment. Journal of Business Research, 88, 481–491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.12.015. [Google Scholar]
  200. Woetzel, J., Chen, Y., Manyika, J., Roth, J., Seong, J., and Lee, J. (2015). The China Effect on Global Innovation. London: McKinsey Global Institute. [Google Scholar]
  201. Yılmaz, C. (1999). Salesforce cooperation: The impact of relational, task, organizational and personal factors, PhD thesis, Texas Tech University. [Google Scholar]
  202. Zhai, Q., Wang, S., and Weadon, H. (2017). Thriving at work as a mediator of the relationship between workplace support and life satisfaction. Journal of Management and Organization. 26(2), 168–184. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.62. [Google Scholar]
  203. Zhang, J., Souitaris, V., Soh, P.H., and Wong, P.K. (2008). A contingent model of network utilization in early financing of technology ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(4), 593–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2008.00244.x. [Google Scholar]
  204. Zhao, H., Peng, Z., and Sheard, G. (2013). Workplace ostracism and hospitality employees’ counterproductive work behaviors: The joint moderating effects of proactive personality and political skill. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.08.006. [Google Scholar]

Kompletne metadane

Cytowanie zasobu

APA style

Demirbağ, Orkun & Demirbağ, Kübra Şimşek & Batı, Gülgönül Bozoğlu (2022). Women Entrepreneurs’ Education Level, Political Skill, and Firm Performance: Political Influence and Human Capital Theories. (2022). Women Entrepreneurs’ Education Level, Political Skill, and Firm Performance: Political Influence and Human Capital Theories. Central European Management Journal, 30(1), 40–69. https://doi.org/10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.69 (Original work published 03/2022n.e.)

MLA style

Demirbağ, Orkun and Demirbağ, Kübra Şimşek and Batı, Gülgönül Bozoğlu. „Women Entrepreneurs’ Education Level, Political Skill, And Firm Performance: Political Influence And Human Capital Theories”. 03/2022n.e. Central European Management Journal, t. 30, nr 1, 2022, ss. 40–69.

Chicago style

Demirbağ, Orkun and Demirbağ, Kübra Şimşek and Batı, Gülgönül Bozoğlu. „Women Entrepreneurs’ Education Level, Political Skill, And Firm Performance: Political Influence And Human Capital Theories”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 30, nr 1 (2022): 40–69. doi:10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.69.