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Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 2019 
Tom 11 
Numer 4

Korematsu. Za wcześnie na sąd historii

Waldemar Hoff
Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego, Kolegium Prawa

2019 11 (4) Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem

DOI 10.7206/kp.2080-1084.343

Abstrakt

W 1942 r. amerykańskie władze wojskowe internowały przeszło 120 tys. osób pochodzenia japońskiego w obawie przed sabotażem na rzecz Japonii. W histo-rycznym wyroku sąd uwolnił od zarzutów Freda Korematsu, lecz podtrzymał konstytucyjność ustawodawstwa prowadzącego do internowania. Później okazało się, że nie było dowodów na udział internowanych w formowaniu piątej kolumny. Decyzja ta była krytykowana jako niekonstytucyjna i motywowana rasizmem. Zdaniem sędziów, którzy zgłosili zdanie odrębne oraz komentatorów stanowisko sądu zostało potępione przez sąd historii. Autor twierdzi, że pierwotna decyzja SN była uzasadniona okolicznościami wojny, w tym stanem niepewności, który ze sobą niosła. Dopóki nie wyposażymy władz w dar jasnowidzenia, musimy uznać ich prawo do działania w czasie zagrożenia, nawet z marginesem błędu. Debata towarzysząca temu wyrokowi zignorowała doświadczenia obu wojen światowych, w których niemiecka piąta kolumna była aktywna i efektywna. Artykuł przed-stawia, nieznaną w piśmiennictwie zachodnim, opowieść naocznego świadka niemieckiego sabotażu w czasie pierwszej wojny światowej. Współczesna historia potwierdza ponadczasowość zjawiska piątej kolumny. Strach, uzasadniony lub nie, przed technikami wojny hybrydowej doprowadził do odradzania się ustawo-dawstwa skierowanego przeciw piątym kolumnom w XXI w., choć środki ich zwalczania są inne. Jest zbyt wcześnie na autorytatywne wypowiedzi sędziów i akademików w imieniu „sądu historii”, ponieważ do końca historii jeszcze daleko.

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Kompletne metadane

Cytowanie zasobu

APA style

Hoff, W. . (2019). Korematsu. Za wcześnie na sąd historii. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, 11(4), 83-100. https://doi.org/10.7206/kp.2080-1084.343 (Original work published 2019)

MLA style

Hoff, W. . „Korematsu. Za Wcześnie Na Sąd Historii”. 2019. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, t. 11, nr 4, 2019, ss. 83-100.

Chicago style

Hoff, Waldemar . „Korematsu. Za Wcześnie Na Sąd Historii”. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne Studia Nad Prawem, Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem, 11, nr 4 (2019): 83-100. doi:10.7206/kp.2080-1084.343.