en pl
en pl

Central European Management Journal

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 2017 
Tom 25 
Numer 4

Impressions of Competency: Tactics and a Conceptual Model

Julita Haber
Gabelli School of Business

Robyn Brouer
Canisius College

2017 25 (4) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.206

Abstrakt

Purpose: The study introduces a research stream of impressions of competency (IC) within the impression management feld. The need for more understanding and research on IC within the feld stems from the rising levels of information processing and competency expectations at work. This shift towards knowledge-intensive processes within organizations creates an environment in which the need to be perceived as competent has become even more relevant. As a result, employees may rely on IC tactics, if the expectation is that they appear as knowledgeable, skilled, and intelligent (i.e., competent).

Methodology: The paper frst includes a new typology of IC tactics that comprises impression management strategies used by individuals specifcally to attain an enhanced image of competence in the workplace. Second, it provides a conceptual model and offers propositions with regards to the antecedents, effectiveness, and outcomes of IC tactics for consideration in future research. Conclusions: The research suggests that higher social norms of displaying competency in the workplace will contribute to higher IC tactic use especially by individuals keen on self-monitoring. Furthermore, politically skilled individuals are more effective with IC tactics, which results in more desirable evaluations of performance.

Research limitations: This is a theoretical and conceptual study. It formulates propositions for further empirical research studies.

Originality: This paper introduces IC within the impression management feld by identifying IC tactics and developing a conceptual model for the examination of their effectiveness in the workplace.

Powiązania

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  54. Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 1024–1037, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1024 [Google Scholar]
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  72. Brouer, R.L. (2005). The role of member political skill and the development of leader-member exchange. Paper presented at the Southern Management Association, Charleston, South Carolina. [Google Scholar]
  73. Brouer, R.L. (2007). The role of political skill in the leadership process-work outcomes relationships. Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database, Publication No. AAT 3282577. [Google Scholar]
  74. Brouer, R.L., Badaway, R.L., Gallagher, V.C. and Haber, J.A. (2015). Political skill dimensionality and impression management choice and effective use. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 217–233, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9344-y [Google Scholar]
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  76. Carey, J.M. and Nahavandi, A. (1996). Using impression management to establish successful service-level agreements. In: J.W. Bear (ed.), Impression management and information technology (pp. 51–64). Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books. [Google Scholar]
  77. Cheng, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Moore, D.R. (2005). Towards a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(5): 380–396, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940510602941 [Google Scholar]
  78. Cialdini, R.B. and De Nicholas, M.E. (1989). Self-presentation by association. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 626–631, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.626 [Google Scholar]
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  80. Crant, J.M. and Bateman, T.S. (1993). Assignment of credit and blame for performance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 7–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/256510 [Google Scholar]
  81. Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 1024–1037, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1024 [Google Scholar]
  82. Adkins, C.L., Russell, C.J. and Werbel, J.D. (1994). Judgments of ft in the selection process: The role of work value congruence. Personnel Psychology, 47(30): 605–623, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1994.tb01740.x [Google Scholar]
  83. Andrews, M.C. and Kacmar, M.K. (2001). Impression management by association: Construction and validation of a scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58: 142–161, https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1756 [Google Scholar]
  84. Arup, V., Toh, M.S. and Pichler, S. (2006). Ingratiation in job applications: impact on selection decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21: 200–210, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610659551 [Google Scholar]
  85. Baczyńska, A. (2015). Analytical, practical and emotional intelligence and line manager competencies. Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 23(4): 34–54, https://doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.156 [Google Scholar]
  86. Barbuto, J.E. and Moss, J.A. (2006). Dispositional effects in intra-organizational influence tactics: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(3): 30–52, https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190601200303 [Google Scholar]
  87. Barrick, M.R., Shaffer, J.A. and DeGrassi, S.W. (2009). What you see may not be what you get: Relationships among self-presentation tactics and ratings of interview and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6): 1394–1411, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016532 [Google Scholar]
  88. Baumeister, R.F. and Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117: 497–529, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497 [Google Scholar]
  89. Beehr, T.A. (1995). Psychological stress in the workplace. London, UK: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  90. Blancero, D., Boroski, J. and Dyer, L. (1996). Key competencies for a transformed human resource organization: Results of a feld study. Human Resources Management, 35: 383–403, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199623)35:3<383::AID-HRM6>3.0.CO;2-T [Google Scholar]
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  92. Bolino, M.C., Klotz, A.C. and Daniels, D. (2014). The impact of impression management over time. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(3): 266–284, https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-10-2012-0290 [Google Scholar]
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  94. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (1999). Measuring impression management in organizations: A scale development based on the Jones and Pittman taxonomy. Organizational Research Methods, 2: 187–206, https://doi.org/10.1177/109442819922005 [Google Scholar]
  95. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (2003a). Counternormative impression management, likeability, and performance ratings: The use of intimidation in an organizational setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(2): 237–250, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.185 [Google Scholar]
  96. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (2003b). More than one way to make an impression: Exploring profles of impression management. Journal of Management, 29: 141–160, https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630302900202 [Google Scholar]
  97. Bolino, M.C., Varela, J.A., Bande, B. and Turnley, W.H. (2006). The impact of impression-management tactics on supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3): 281–297, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.379 [Google Scholar]
  98. Bozeman, D.P. and Kacmar, K.M. (1997). A cybernetic model of impression management processes in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69: 9–30, https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.2669 [Google Scholar]
  99. Brouer, R.L. (2005). The role of member political skill and the development of leader-member exchange. Paper presented at the Southern Management Association, Charleston, South Carolina. [Google Scholar]
  100. Brouer, R.L. (2007). The role of political skill in the leadership process-work outcomes relationships. Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database, Publication No. AAT 3282577. [Google Scholar]
  101. Brouer, R.L., Badaway, R.L., Gallagher, V.C. and Haber, J.A. (2015). Political skill dimensionality and impression management choice and effective use. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 217–233, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9344-y [Google Scholar]
  102. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. [Google Scholar]
  103. Carey, J.M. and Nahavandi, A. (1996). Using impression management to establish successful service-level agreements. In: J.W. Bear (ed.), Impression management and information technology (pp. 51–64). Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books. [Google Scholar]
  104. Cheng, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Moore, D.R. (2005). Towards a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(5): 380–396, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940510602941 [Google Scholar]
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  134. Crant, J.M. and Bateman, T.S. (1993). Assignment of credit and blame for performance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 7–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/256510 [Google Scholar]
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  157. Carey, J.M. and Nahavandi, A. (1996). Using impression management to establish successful service-level agreements. In: J.W. Bear (ed.), Impression management and information technology (pp. 51–64). Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books. [Google Scholar]
  158. Cheng, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Moore, D.R. (2005). Towards a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(5): 380–396, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940510602941 [Google Scholar]
  159. Cialdini, R.B. and De Nicholas, M.E. (1989). Self-presentation by association. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 626–631, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.626 [Google Scholar]
  160. Cooke, R.A. and Rousseau, D.M. (1988). Behavioral norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of organizational culture. Group and Organization Studies, 13: 245–273, https://doi.org/10.1177/105960118801300302 [Google Scholar]
  161. Crant, J.M. and Bateman, T.S. (1993). Assignment of credit and blame for performance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 7–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/256510 [Google Scholar]
  162. Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 1024–1037, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1024 [Google Scholar]
  163. Adkins, C.L., Russell, C.J. and Werbel, J.D. (1994). Judgments of ft in the selection process: The role of work value congruence. Personnel Psychology, 47(30): 605–623, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1994.tb01740.x [Google Scholar]
  164. Andrews, M.C. and Kacmar, M.K. (2001). Impression management by association: Construction and validation of a scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58: 142–161, https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1756 [Google Scholar]
  165. Arup, V., Toh, M.S. and Pichler, S. (2006). Ingratiation in job applications: impact on selection decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21: 200–210, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610659551 [Google Scholar]
  166. Baczyńska, A. (2015). Analytical, practical and emotional intelligence and line manager competencies. Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 23(4): 34–54, https://doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.156 [Google Scholar]
  167. Barbuto, J.E. and Moss, J.A. (2006). Dispositional effects in intra-organizational influence tactics: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(3): 30–52, https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190601200303 [Google Scholar]
  168. Barrick, M.R., Shaffer, J.A. and DeGrassi, S.W. (2009). What you see may not be what you get: Relationships among self-presentation tactics and ratings of interview and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6): 1394–1411, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016532 [Google Scholar]
  169. Baumeister, R.F. and Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117: 497–529, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497 [Google Scholar]
  170. Beehr, T.A. (1995). Psychological stress in the workplace. London, UK: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  171. Blancero, D., Boroski, J. and Dyer, L. (1996). Key competencies for a transformed human resource organization: Results of a feld study. Human Resources Management, 35: 383–403, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199623)35:3<383::AID-HRM6>3.0.CO;2-T [Google Scholar]
  172. Bolino, M.C., Kacmar, M.K., Turnley, W.H. and Gilstrap, J.B. (2008). A multi-level review of impression management motives and behaviors. Journal of Management, 34: 1081–1109, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308324325 [Google Scholar]
  173. Bolino, M.C., Klotz, A.C. and Daniels, D. (2014). The impact of impression management over time. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(3): 266–284, https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-10-2012-0290 [Google Scholar]
  174. Bolino M.C., Long D. and Turnley, W.H. (2016). Impression management in organizations: Critical questions, answers, and areas for future research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3: 377–406, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015-062337 [Google Scholar]
  175. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (1999). Measuring impression management in organizations: A scale development based on the Jones and Pittman taxonomy. Organizational Research Methods, 2: 187–206, https://doi.org/10.1177/109442819922005 [Google Scholar]
  176. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (2003a). Counternormative impression management, likeability, and performance ratings: The use of intimidation in an organizational setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(2): 237–250, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.185 [Google Scholar]
  177. Bolino, M.C. and Turnley, W.H. (2003b). More than one way to make an impression: Exploring profles of impression management. Journal of Management, 29: 141–160, https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630302900202 [Google Scholar]
  178. Bolino, M.C., Varela, J.A., Bande, B. and Turnley, W.H. (2006). The impact of impression-management tactics on supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3): 281–297, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.379 [Google Scholar]
  179. Bozeman, D.P. and Kacmar, K.M. (1997). A cybernetic model of impression management processes in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69: 9–30, https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.2669 [Google Scholar]
  180. Brouer, R.L. (2005). The role of member political skill and the development of leader-member exchange. Paper presented at the Southern Management Association, Charleston, South Carolina. [Google Scholar]
  181. Brouer, R.L. (2007). The role of political skill in the leadership process-work outcomes relationships. Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database, Publication No. AAT 3282577. [Google Scholar]
  182. Brouer, R.L., Badaway, R.L., Gallagher, V.C. and Haber, J.A. (2015). Political skill dimensionality and impression management choice and effective use. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 217–233, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9344-y [Google Scholar]
  183. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. [Google Scholar]
  184. Carey, J.M. and Nahavandi, A. (1996). Using impression management to establish successful service-level agreements. In: J.W. Bear (ed.), Impression management and information technology (pp. 51–64). Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books. [Google Scholar]
  185. Cheng, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Moore, D.R. (2005). Towards a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(5): 380–396, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940510602941 [Google Scholar]
  186. Cialdini, R.B. and De Nicholas, M.E. (1989). Self-presentation by association. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 626–631, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.626 [Google Scholar]
  187. Cooke, R.A. and Rousseau, D.M. (1988). Behavioral norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of organizational culture. Group and Organization Studies, 13: 245–273, https://doi.org/10.1177/105960118801300302 [Google Scholar]
  188. Crant, J.M. and Bateman, T.S. (1993). Assignment of credit and blame for performance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 7–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/256510 [Google Scholar]
  189. Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 1024–1037, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1024 [Google Scholar]

Kompletne metadane

Cytowanie zasobu

APA style

Haber, J. , & Brouer, R. . (2017). Impressions of Competency: Tactics and a Conceptual Model. Central European Management Journal, 25(4), 28-54. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.206 (Original work published 2017)

MLA style

Haber, J. , i R. Brouer. „Impressions Of Competency: Tactics And A Conceptual Model”. 2017. Central European Management Journal, t. 25, nr 4, 2017, ss. 28-54.

Chicago style

Haber, Julita , i Robyn Brouer. „Impressions Of Competency: Tactics And A Conceptual Model”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 25, nr 4 (2017): 28-54. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.206.