en pl
en pl

Central European Management Journal

Show issue
Year 2018 
Volume 26 
Issue 4

Application of Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale on Human Brands in Surf Sports

Agata Kakitek
Warsaw School of Economics

2018 26 (4) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.240

Abstract

Purpose: This research explores the application of Aaker’s brand personality scale on human brands in surf sports. It investigates the potential for detecting differences in the brand personality profile used on human brands. Aaker (1997) developed a brand personality framework consisting out of five dimensions of brand personality and fifteen brand personality attributes. This framework has been used in several studies; however, it has been criticized by researchers for its lack of applicability as a general scale. This paper addresses this issue by testing all forty-two original brand personality attributes, used by Aaker, on professional surfers as human brands. A second objective was to establish an ultra-short scale for practical reasons since brand personality is often only one of several measures in a questionnaire.

Methodology: In order to determine what attributes were the most appropriate when describing a professional surfer, a web survey with a 7-point Likert scale was conducted, which resulted in a convenience sample of n=219 respondents. In this study, the author conducted principle factor analysis and compared the results of an oblique rotation with Aaker’s results in order to investigate whether Aaker’s brand personality scale provides similar results on human brands as it does on product brands.

Findings: This paper concludes that partially different facets than Aaker’s (1997) brand personality framework apply to human brands in the surf context. The more appropriate facets for human brands in the surf context include: real, wholesome, good-looking, secure, Western, and up-to-date.

Research Limitations/Implications: Further research on specific athletes in different contexts is needed. It could incorporate other brand personality scales e.g. Geuens et al. (2009), Braunstein and Ross (2010) and Tsiotsou (2012) scales.

Practical Implications: The findings of this study are useful for sports marketers to better understand athletes as human brands as well as their facets, in order to develop target positioning with specific marketing strategies.

References

  1. Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3): 347–357, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151897 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aaker, J.L., Benet-Martinez, V. and Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(3): 492–508, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.3.492 [Google Scholar]
  3. Austin, J.R., Siguaw, J.A. and Mattila, A.S. (2003). A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2): 77–92, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0965254032000104469 [Google Scholar]
  4. Azoulay, A. and Kapferer, J.N. (2003). Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? Journal of Brand Management, 11(2): 143–155, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540162 [Google Scholar]
  5. Banerjee, S. (2016). Influence of consumer personality, brand personality, and corporate personality on brand preference: an empirical investigation of interaction effect. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 28(2): 198–216, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/APJML-05-2015-0073 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barrick, M.R. and Mount, M.K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta- -analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1): 1–26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Bosnjak, M., Bochmann, V. and Hufschmidt, T. (2007). Dimensions of brand personality attributions: A person-centric approach in the German cultural context. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(3): 303−316, http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2007.35.3.303. [Google Scholar]
  8. Braunstein, J. and Ross, S. (2010). Brand personality in sport: Dimension analysis and general scale development. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19(1): 8–16. [Google Scholar]
  9. Carlson, B.D. and Donavan, D.T. (2013). Human Brands in Sports: Athletes Brand Personality and Identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3): 193–206, http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.27.3.193 [Google Scholar]
  10. Buresti, F. and Rosenberger III, P.J. (2006). Brand Personality Differentiation in the Australian Action-Sports Clothing Market. Marketing Bulletin 2006, 17: 1–16. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chaplin, W.F., John, O.P. and Goldberg, L.R. (1988). Conceptions of states and traits: Dimensional attributes with ideals and prototypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4): 541–557, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.4.541 [Google Scholar]
  12. Conway, J.M. and Huffcutt, A.I. (2003). A review and evaluation of exploratory factor analysis practices. Organizational Research Methods, 6: 147–168. [Google Scholar]
  13. Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used – an experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1): 61–77. [Google Scholar]
  14. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4): 343–353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209515 [Google Scholar]
  15. Freling, T.H., Crosno, J.L. and Henard, D.H. (2011). Brand personality appeal: conceptualization and empirical validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3): 392-406, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11747-010-0208-3 [Google Scholar]
  16. Freling, T.H. and Forbes, L.P. (2005). An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 14(7): 404–413, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610420510633350 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gardner, B.B. and Levy, S.J. (1955). The product and the brand. Harvard Business Review, March–April: 33–39, http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231372.n13 [Google Scholar]
  18. Garsvaite, K. and Caruana, A. (2014). Do consumers of FMCGs seek brands with congruent personalities? Journal of Brand Management, 21(6): 485–494, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.17 [Google Scholar]
  19. Geuens, M., Weijters, B. and De Wulf, K. (2009). A New Measure of Brand Personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2): 97–107, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2008.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  20. Guadagnoli, E. and Velicer, W.F. (1988). Relation to sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin, 103(2): 265–275, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.265 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ha, H.Y. and Janda, S. (2014). Brand personality and its outcomes in the Chinese automobile industry. Asia Pacific Business Review, 20(2): 216–230, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2013.841022 [Google Scholar]
  22. Heere, B. (2010). A new approach to measure perceived brand personality associations among consumers. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19(1): 17–24. [Google Scholar]
  23. Keller, K.L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4): 595–600, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/346254 [Google Scholar]
  24. Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring and managing consumer-based Brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(January): 1–22. [Google Scholar]
  25. Kent, R. (2007). Marketing Research Approaches, Methods and Applications in Europe. London: Thomson [Google Scholar]
  26. Kleine, R.E., Schultz Kleine, S. and Kernan, J.B. (1993). Mundane consumption and the self: a social- -identity perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2(3): 209–35, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80015-0 [Google Scholar]
  27. Malhotra, N.K. (1981). A scale to measure self-concepts, person concepts and products. Journal of Marketing Research, 23(November): 456–64. [Google Scholar]
  28. Mitsis, A. and Leckie, C. (2016). Validating and extending the sport brand personality scale. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(2): 203–221, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-08-2014-0185 [Google Scholar]
  29. Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  30. Ramaseshan, B. and Stein, A. (2014). Connecting the dots between brand experience and brand loyalty: the mediating role of brand personality and brand relationships. Journal of Brand Management, 21(7–8): 664–683, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.23 [Google Scholar]
  31. Molinillo, S., Japutra, A., Nguyen, B., Chen, C.-H.S. (2017). Responsible brands vs active brands? An examination of brand personality on brand awareness, brand trust, and brand loyalty. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(2): 166–179, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MIP-04-2016-0064 [Google Scholar]
  32. PwC Sports Outlook (2016). At the Gate and Beyond, http://www.pwc.com/us/en/industry/entertainment-media/publications/assets/pwc-sports-outlook- 2016.pdf (18.05.2017) [Google Scholar]
  33. Participation Report (20017). The Physical Activity Council’s annual study tracking sports, fitness, and recreation participation in the US, http://www.physicalactivitycouncil.com/pdfs/current.pdf (18.05.2017) [Google Scholar]
  34. Su, J. and Tong, X. (2015). Brand personality and brand equity: evidence from the sportswear industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(2): 124–133, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-01-2014-0482 [Google Scholar]
  35. Sung, Y., Choi, S.M., Ahn, H. and Song, Y.A. (2015). Dimensions of luxury brand personality: scale development and validation. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1): 121–132, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20767 [Google Scholar]
  36. Thomson, M. (2006). Human brands: Investigating antecedents to consumers’ strong attachments to celebrities. Journal of Marketing, 70(3): 104–119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.104 [Google Scholar]
  37. Tsiotsou R., (2012). Developing a scale for measuring the personality of sport teams. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(4): 238–252, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876041211237541 [Google Scholar]
  38. Weber, S. (2016). Top 100 highest-paid athletes endorsers of 2016, http://opendorse.com/blog/2016-highest-paid-athlete-endorsers/ (22.02.2017). [Google Scholar]

Full metadata record

Cite this record

APA style

Application of Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale on Human Brands in Surf Sports. (2018). Application of Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale on Human Brands in Surf Sports. Central European Management Journal, 26(4), 11-31. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.240 (Original work published 2018)

MLA style

“Application Of Aaker’S Brand Personality Scale On Human Brands In Surf Sports”. 2018. Central European Management Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, 2018, pp. 11-31.

Chicago style

“Application Of Aaker’S Brand Personality Scale On Human Brands In Surf Sports”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 26, no. 4 (2018): 11-31. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.240.