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Central European Management Journal

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Year 2017 
Volume 25 
Issue 1

In Search of Ecological Norms in Brand Personality Diagnostics

Oleg Gorbaniuk
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II

Michał Wilczewski
University of Warsaw

2017 25 (1) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.186

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales.

Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females) were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected. Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specifc norms for each of the four scales.

Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market.

Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more effcient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.

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  57. Moons, I. and De Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Developing Different Types of Anticipated Experience Positioning for Electric Cars. Journal of Brand Management, 21: 216–235, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.2 [Google Scholar]
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  78. Austin, J. R., Siguaw, J. A. and Mattila, A. S. (2003). A Re-Examination of the Generalizability of the Aaker Brand Personality Measurement Framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11: 77–92, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0965254032000104469 [Google Scholar]
  79. Azoulay, A. and Kapferer, J.N. (2003). Do Brand Personality Scales Really Measure Brand Personality? Brand Management, 11: 143–155, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540162 [Google Scholar]
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  88. Gorbaniuk, O. (2011). Personifikacja marki: perspektywa psychologiczna i marketingowa. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL. [Google Scholar]
  89. Gorbaniuk, O., Budzińska, A., Owczarek, M., Bożek, E. and Juros, K. (2013). The Factor Structure of Polish Personality-Descriptive Adjectives: An Alternative Psycho-Lexical Study. European Journal of Personality, 27: 304–318, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.1921 [Google Scholar]
  90. Gorbaniuk, O., Maciejewska, A., Kisiel, A., Kolańska, M. and Filipowska, J. (2014). Systematyzacja i pomiar postrzeganych zmian w obrazie siebie konsumentów pod wpływem korzystania z marek usług. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22, 45–64, http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.68 [Google Scholar]
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  93. Moons, I. and De Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Developing Different Types of Anticipated Experience Positioning for Electric Cars. Journal of Brand Management, 21: 216–235, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.2 [Google Scholar]
  94. Plummer, J.T. (1985). How Personality Makes a Difference. Journal of Advertising Research, 24(6): 27–31. [Google Scholar]
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  99. Sung, Y. and Tinkham, S.F. (2005). Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15: 334–350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8 [Google Scholar]
  100. Sung, Y., Choi, S.M., Ahn, H. and Song, Y.A. (2015). Dimensions of Luxury Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation. Psychology and Marketing, 32: 121–132, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar [Google Scholar]
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  102. Taranko, T. and Chmielewski, K.J. (2014). Brand as a Source of Value for Its Buyer and Owner. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 4: 133–143, http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.125 [Google Scholar]
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  157. Eisend, M. and Stokburger-Sauer, N.E. (2013). Measurement Characteristics of Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions: Lessons to be Learned from Human Personality Research. Psychology and Marketing, 30: 950–958. [Google Scholar]
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  185. Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F. and John, O.P. (1990). Towards a Taxonomy of Personality Descriptors in German: A Psycho-Lexical Study. European Journal of Personality, 4: 89–118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.2410040204 [Google Scholar]
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  190. Bosnjak, M., Bochmann, V. and Hufschmidt, T. (2007). Dimensions of Brand Personality Attributions: A Person-Centric Approach in the German Cultural Context. Social Behavior and Personality, 35: 303–316, http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2007.35.3.303 [Google Scholar]
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  193. Eisend, M. and Stokburger-Sauer, N.E. (2013). Measurement Characteristics of Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions: Lessons to be Learned from Human Personality Research. Psychology and Marketing, 30: 950–958. [Google Scholar]
  194. Eisend, M. and Stokburger-Sauer, N.E. (2013). Measurement Characteristics of Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions: Lessons to be Learned from Human Personality Research. Psychology and Marketing, 30: 950–958, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20658 [Google Scholar]
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  196. Gorbaniuk, O. (2011). Personifikacja marki: perspektywa psychologiczna i marketingowa. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL. [Google Scholar]
  197. Gorbaniuk, O., Budzińska, A., Owczarek, M., Bożek, E. and Juros, K. (2013). The Factor Structure of Polish Personality-Descriptive Adjectives: An Alternative Psycho-Lexical Study. European Journal of Personality, 27: 304–318, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.1921 [Google Scholar]
  198. Gorbaniuk, O., Maciejewska, A., Kisiel, A., Kolańska, M. and Filipowska, J. (2014). Systematyzacja i pomiar postrzeganych zmian w obrazie siebie konsumentów pod wpływem korzystania z marek usług. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22, 45–64, http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.68 [Google Scholar]
  199. Gwin, C.F. and Gwin, C.R. (2003). Product Attributes Model: A Tool for Evaluating Brand Positioning. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 11(2): 30–42. [Google Scholar]
  200. Kumar, A. and Venkatesakumar, R. (2015). Creating a Business-Media Brand Personality Scale. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6: 50–61. [Google Scholar]
  201. Moons, I. and De Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Developing Different Types of Anticipated Experience Positioning for Electric Cars. Journal of Brand Management, 21: 216–235, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.2 [Google Scholar]
  202. Plummer, J.T. (1985). How Personality Makes a Difference. Journal of Advertising Research, 24(6): 27–31. [Google Scholar]
  203. Robinson, W.S. (1950). Ecological Correlations and the Behavior of Individuals. American Sociological Review, 15, 351–357, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2087176 [Google Scholar]
  204. Rojas-Méndez, J., Erenchun-Podlech, I. and Silva-Olave, E. (2004). The Ford Brand Personality in Chile. Corporate Reputation Review, 7: 232–251. [Google Scholar]
  205. Saucier, G. (2009). Semantic and Linguistic Aspects of Personality. In: P.J. Corr and G. Matthews (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology (pp. 379–399). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8 [Google Scholar]
  206. Sung, Y. and Tinkham, S.F. (2005). Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15: 334–350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8 [Google Scholar]
  207. Sung, Y. and Tinkham, S.F. (2005). Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15: 334–350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8 [Google Scholar]
  208. Sung, Y., Choi, S.M., Ahn, H. and Song, Y.A. (2015). Dimensions of Luxury Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation. Psychology and Marketing, 32: 121–132, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar [Google Scholar]
  209. Supphellen, M. and Gronhaug, K. (2003). Building Foreign Brand Personalities in Russia: The Moderating Effect of Consumer Ethnocentrism. International Journal of Advertising, 22: 203–226. [Google Scholar]
  210. Taranko, T. and Chmielewski, K.J. (2014). Brand as a Source of Value for Its Buyer and Owner. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 4: 133–143, http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.125 [Google Scholar]
  211. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]
  212. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]
  213. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]
  214. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]
  215. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]
  216. Tong, X. and Su, J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4: 178–192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032 [Google Scholar]

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Gorbaniuk, O. , & Wilczewski, M. . (2017). In Search of Ecological Norms in Brand Personality Diagnostics. Central European Management Journal, 25(1), 2-15. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.186 (Original work published 2017)

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Gorbaniuk, O. , and M. Wilczewski. “In Search Of Ecological Norms In Brand Personality Diagnostics”. 2017. Central European Management Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, 2017, pp. 2-15.

Chicago style

Gorbaniuk, Oleg , and Michał Wilczewski. “In Search Of Ecological Norms In Brand Personality Diagnostics”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 25, no. 1 (2017): 2-15. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.186.