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Central European Management Journal

Show issue
Year 2016 
Volume 24 
Issue 4

Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

Raghda Climis
BMU Lebanese French University

2016 24 (4) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.182

Abstract

Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit) in the empirical model.

Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are significant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and significant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables.

Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus.

Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

References

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  66. Chen, F.Y. and Chang, Y.H. (2005). Examining airline service quality from a process perspective. Journal of Air Transport Management, 11(2): 79–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2004.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  67. Cunningham, L.F. and Clifford, E.Y. (2002). Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation. Journal of Air Transportation, 7(1): 3–26. [Google Scholar]
  68. Degirmenci, E., Basligil, H., Bolat, A. and Ozdemir, Y. (2012). Customer Satisfaction Measurement in Airline Services Using Servqual. Open Access Scientifc Reports, 1(5), https://doi.org/10.4172/scientifcreports.294 [Google Scholar]
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  75. Goyles, Stephanie and Gokey, Timothy C. (2005). Customer retention is not enough. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(2): 101–105, https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510700041 [Google Scholar]
  76. Gremler, D.D., Gwinner, K.P. and Brown, S.W. (2001). Generating Positive Word-of-Mouth Communication through Customer–Employee Relationships. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1): 44–59, https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230110382763 [Google Scholar]
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  79. Homburg, C., Koschate, N. and Hoyer, W.D. (2006). The Role of Cognition and Affect in the Formation of Customer Satisfaction-A Dynamic Perspective. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.21 [Google Scholar]
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  85. Jamal, A. and Naser, K. (2003). Factors influencing customer satisfaction in the retail banking sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 13(2): 29–53, https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047465 [Google Scholar]
  86. Johnson, Mark S., Ellen, G. and Eugene, S. (2006). Influences of Customer Differences of Loyalty, Perceived Risk and Category Experience on Customer Satisfaction Ratings. International Journal of Market Research, 48(5), 601–622. [Google Scholar]
  87. Jones, T.O. and Sasser Jr., W.E. (1995). Why satisfed customers defect. Harvard Business Review, 73(6), 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  88. Kottler, P. (2000). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. [Google Scholar]
  89. Liu, Y. (2007). The long-term impact of loyalty programs on consumer purchase behavior and loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 71(4): 19–35, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.71.4.19 [Google Scholar]
  90. Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. and Dierdonck, R.V. (2003). Services Management: an integrated approach. 2nd Edition Essex: Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  91. Mittal, V. and Kamakura, W.A. (2001). Satisfaction, Repurchase Intent, and Repurchase Behavior: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Customer Characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1): 131–142, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.38.1.131.18832 [Google Scholar]
  92. Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58: 20–38, https://doi.org/10.2307/1252308 [Google Scholar]
  93. Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(special issue 1999), https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099 [Google Scholar]
  94. Ozlem, A. and Melike, A. (2009). A Study to Determine the Effects of Customer Value on Customer Loyalty in Airline Companies Operating: Case of Turkish Air Travellers. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(6): 154–162. [Google Scholar]
  95. Pakdil, F. and Aydin, O. (2007). Expectations and perceptions in airline service: an analysis using weighted SERVQUAL scores. Journal of Air Transport Management, 13(4): 229–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2007.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  96. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251430 [Google Scholar]
  97. Rauyruen, P. and K.E. Miller (2007). Relationship Quality as a Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 60(1): 21–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  98. Reichheld, F. and Sasser, W.E. (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5): 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  99. Ringle, Ch.M., Sarstedt, M. and Zimmermann, L. (2011). Customer Satisfaction with Commercial Airlines: The Role of Perceived Safety and Purpose of Travel. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(4): 459–472, https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190407 [Google Scholar]
  100. Rose, S. (1990). The coming revolution in credit cards. Journal of Retail Banking, 12(2): 17–19. Rothschild, M.L. and Gaidis, W.C. (1981). Behavioral learning theory: its relevance to marketing and promotion. Journal of Marketing, 45(2): 70–78, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251666 [Google Scholar]
  101. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  102. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  103. Siomkos, G.J. (2000). Managing Airline Disasters: The Role of Consumer Safety Perceptions and Sense- -Making. Journal of Air Transport Management, 6(2): 101–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6997(99)00030-7 [Google Scholar]
  104. Srinivasana, S.S., Andersona, R. and Ponnavolub, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1): 41–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00065-3 [Google Scholar]
  105. Sweeney, J.C., Soutar, G.N. and Johnson, L.W. (1999). The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: A Study in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1): 77–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80005-0 [Google Scholar]
  106. Yi, Y and Jeon, H. (2003). Effects of loyalty programs on value perception, program loyalty and brand loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3): 229–240, https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303031003002 [Google Scholar]
  107. Yu, S.-H. (2007). An Empirical Investigation on the Economic Consequences of Customer Satisfaction. Total Quality Management & Business, Excellence, 18(5): 555–569, https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701240493 [Google Scholar]
  108. Zhaohua Deng, Yaobin Lu, Kwok Kee Wei and Jinlong Zhang (2010). Understanding customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical study of mobile instant messages in China. International Journal of Information Management, 30(4): 289–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.20 [Google Scholar]
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  113. Atalik, O. and Ozel, E. (2007). Passenger Expectations and Factors Affecting Their Choice of Low Cost Carriers: Pegasus Airlines. Paper presented at the Northeast Business and Economics Association conference, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain. [Google Scholar]
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  118. Buchanan, R.W. T. and Gillies, C.S. (1990). Value managed relationships: The key to customer retention and proftability. European Management Journal, 8(4): 523–526, https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-2373(90)90115-M [Google Scholar]
  119. Chang, Y.H. and Yeh, C.H. (2002). A survey analysis of service quality for domestic airlines. European Journal of Operational Research, 139(1): 166–177, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00148-5 [Google Scholar]
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  123. Dwyer, F.R., Schurr, P.H. and Sejo Oh (1987). Developing Buyer–Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51(April): 11–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251126 [Google Scholar]
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  128. Gilbert, D. and Wong, K.C. (2003). Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong-based study. Tourism Management, 24(5): 519–532, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00002-5 [Google Scholar]
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  133. Homburg, C., Koschate, N. and Hoyer, W.D. (2006). The Role of Cognition and Affect in the Formation of Customer Satisfaction-A Dynamic Perspective. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.21 [Google Scholar]
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  139. Jamal, A. and Naser, K. (2003). Factors influencing customer satisfaction in the retail banking sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 13(2): 29–53, https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047465 [Google Scholar]
  140. Johnson, Mark S., Ellen, G. and Eugene, S. (2006). Influences of Customer Differences of Loyalty, Perceived Risk and Category Experience on Customer Satisfaction Ratings. International Journal of Market Research, 48(5), 601–622. [Google Scholar]
  141. Jones, T.O. and Sasser Jr., W.E. (1995). Why satisfed customers defect. Harvard Business Review, 73(6), 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  142. Kottler, P. (2000). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. [Google Scholar]
  143. Liu, Y. (2007). The long-term impact of loyalty programs on consumer purchase behavior and loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 71(4): 19–35, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.71.4.19 [Google Scholar]
  144. Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. and Dierdonck, R.V. (2003). Services Management: an integrated approach. 2nd Edition Essex: Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  145. Mittal, V. and Kamakura, W.A. (2001). Satisfaction, Repurchase Intent, and Repurchase Behavior: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Customer Characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1): 131–142, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.38.1.131.18832 [Google Scholar]
  146. Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58: 20–38, https://doi.org/10.2307/1252308 [Google Scholar]
  147. Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(special issue 1999), https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099 [Google Scholar]
  148. Ozlem, A. and Melike, A. (2009). A Study to Determine the Effects of Customer Value on Customer Loyalty in Airline Companies Operating: Case of Turkish Air Travellers. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(6): 154–162. [Google Scholar]
  149. Pakdil, F. and Aydin, O. (2007). Expectations and perceptions in airline service: an analysis using weighted SERVQUAL scores. Journal of Air Transport Management, 13(4): 229–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2007.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  150. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251430 [Google Scholar]
  151. Rauyruen, P. and K.E. Miller (2007). Relationship Quality as a Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 60(1): 21–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  152. Reichheld, F. and Sasser, W.E. (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5): 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  153. Ringle, Ch.M., Sarstedt, M. and Zimmermann, L. (2011). Customer Satisfaction with Commercial Airlines: The Role of Perceived Safety and Purpose of Travel. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(4): 459–472, https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190407 [Google Scholar]
  154. Rose, S. (1990). The coming revolution in credit cards. Journal of Retail Banking, 12(2): 17–19. Rothschild, M.L. and Gaidis, W.C. (1981). Behavioral learning theory: its relevance to marketing and promotion. Journal of Marketing, 45(2): 70–78, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251666 [Google Scholar]
  155. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  156. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  157. Siomkos, G.J. (2000). Managing Airline Disasters: The Role of Consumer Safety Perceptions and Sense- -Making. Journal of Air Transport Management, 6(2): 101–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6997(99)00030-7 [Google Scholar]
  158. Srinivasana, S.S., Andersona, R. and Ponnavolub, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1): 41–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00065-3 [Google Scholar]
  159. Sweeney, J.C., Soutar, G.N. and Johnson, L.W. (1999). The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: A Study in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1): 77–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80005-0 [Google Scholar]
  160. Yi, Y and Jeon, H. (2003). Effects of loyalty programs on value perception, program loyalty and brand loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3): 229–240, https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303031003002 [Google Scholar]
  161. Yu, S.-H. (2007). An Empirical Investigation on the Economic Consequences of Customer Satisfaction. Total Quality Management & Business, Excellence, 18(5): 555–569, https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701240493 [Google Scholar]
  162. Zhaohua Deng, Yaobin Lu, Kwok Kee Wei and Jinlong Zhang (2010). Understanding customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical study of mobile instant messages in China. International Journal of Information Management, 30(4): 289–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.20 [Google Scholar]
  163. Adams, B.S., Dong, Y. and Dresner, M. (2011). Linkages between customer service, customer satisfaction and performance in the airline industry: Investigation of non-linearities and moderating effects. Transportation Research Part E: Logistic and Transportation Review, 48(4): 743–754, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tre.2011.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  164. Aksoy, Safak, Eda Atilgan and Serkan Akinci (2003). Airline Services Marketing by Domestic and Foreign Firms Differences from the Customers’ Viewpoint. Journal of Air Transport Management, 9(6): 343–351, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6997(03)00034-6 [Google Scholar]
  165. Anderson, E. and Barton, W. (1992). The Use of Pledges to Build and Sustain Commitment in Distribution Channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1): 18–34, https://doi.org/10.2307/3172490 [Google Scholar]
  166. Anderson, E.W., Fornell, C. and Lehman, D.R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share and proftability: fndings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(2): 112–122, https://doi.org/10.2307/1252310 [Google Scholar]
  167. Atalik, O. and Ozel, E. (2007). Passenger Expectations and Factors Affecting Their Choice of Low Cost Carriers: Pegasus Airlines. Paper presented at the Northeast Business and Economics Association conference, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain. [Google Scholar]
  168. Back, K.J. and Parks, S.C. (2003). A brand loyalty model involving cognitive, affective, and cognitive brand loyalty and customer satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(4): 419–435, https://doi.org/10.1177/10963480030274003 [Google Scholar]
  169. Bansal, H.S., McDougall, G.H.G. et al. (2004). Relating e-satisfaction to behavioral outcomes: an empirical study. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(4): 290–302, https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040410542281 [Google Scholar]
  170. Beh, Y.Y. and Faziharudean, T.M. (2010). Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Using Internet Banking in Malaysia. Journal of Electronic Banking Systems, https://doi.org/10.5171/2010.592297 [Google Scholar]
  171. Bendapudi, N. and Leonard, L. Berry (1997). Customers’ Motivations for Maintaining Relationships with Service Providers. Journal of Retailing, 73(1): 15–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(97)90013-0 [Google Scholar]
  172. Buchanan, R.W. T. and Gillies, C.S. (1990). Value managed relationships: The key to customer retention and proftability. European Management Journal, 8(4): 523–526, https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-2373(90)90115-M [Google Scholar]
  173. Chang, Y.H. and Yeh, C.H. (2002). A survey analysis of service quality for domestic airlines. European Journal of Operational Research, 139(1): 166–177, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00148-5 [Google Scholar]
  174. Chen, F.Y. and Chang, Y.H. (2005). Examining airline service quality from a process perspective. Journal of Air Transport Management, 11(2): 79–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2004.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  175. Cunningham, L.F. and Clifford, E.Y. (2002). Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation. Journal of Air Transportation, 7(1): 3–26. [Google Scholar]
  176. Degirmenci, E., Basligil, H., Bolat, A. and Ozdemir, Y. (2012). Customer Satisfaction Measurement in Airline Services Using Servqual. Open Access Scientifc Reports, 1(5), https://doi.org/10.4172/scientifcreports.294 [Google Scholar]
  177. Dwyer, F.R., Schurr, P.H. and Sejo Oh (1987). Developing Buyer–Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51(April): 11–27, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251126 [Google Scholar]
  178. Emerson, C.J. and Grimm, C.M. (1998). The relative importance of logistics and marketing customer service: A strategic perspective. Journal of Business Logistics, 19(1): 17–32. [Google Scholar]
  179. Evanschitzky, H., Iyer, G.R. et al. (2006). The relative strength of affective commitment in ecuring loyalty in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 59(12): 1207–1213, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  180. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D., F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50: https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312 [Google Scholar]
  181. Fornell, C., Johnson, M.D., Anderson, E.W., Cha, J. and Bryant, B.E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: nature, purpose, and fndings. Journal of Marketing, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251898 [Google Scholar]
  182. Gilbert, D. and Wong, K.C. (2003). Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong-based study. Tourism Management, 24(5): 519–532, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00002-5 [Google Scholar]
  183. Goyles, Stephanie and Gokey, Timothy C. (2005). Customer retention is not enough. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(2): 101–105, https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510700041 [Google Scholar]
  184. Gremler, D.D., Gwinner, K.P. and Brown, S.W. (2001). Generating Positive Word-of-Mouth Communication through Customer–Employee Relationships. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1): 44–59, https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230110382763 [Google Scholar]
  185. Grönroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(1): 36–44, https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004784 [Google Scholar]
  186. Heskett, J.L., Jones, T.O., Loveman, G.W., Sasser, W.E. Jr and Schlesinger, L.A. (1994). Putting the service proft chain to work. Harvard Business Review, March–April: 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  187. Homburg, C., Koschate, N. and Hoyer, W.D. (2006). The Role of Cognition and Affect in the Formation of Customer Satisfaction-A Dynamic Perspective. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.21 [Google Scholar]
  188. Houlihan, M. and Harvey, B. (2012). 7 Factors Affect Customer Loyalty. The Brand Authority, available at: http://www.thebrandauthority.net/7-factors-effect-customer-loyalty/ (26.12.2012). [Google Scholar]
  189. International Air Transport Association (2009). US$5.6 Billion Loss in 2010-Low Yields and Rising Costs Keep Industry in the Red. IATA, www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/2009-12-15-01.htm (20.02.2013). [Google Scholar]
  190. International Air Transport Association (2010). 2009: Worst Demand Decline in History Encouraging Year-End Improvements. IATA, www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/2010-01-27-01.htm (20.02.2013). [Google Scholar]
  191. International Air Transport Association (2016). IATA Fact Sheet Industry Statistics. IATA, available at: www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_fgures/fact_sheets/Documents/fact-sheet-industry-facts.pdf (05.11.2016). [Google Scholar]
  192. Jacoby, J. and Kyner, D.B. (1973). Brand loyalty vs. repeat purchasing behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(1): 1–9, https://doi.org/10.2307/3149402 [Google Scholar]
  193. Jamal, A. and Naser, K. (2003). Factors influencing customer satisfaction in the retail banking sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 13(2): 29–53, https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047465 [Google Scholar]
  194. Johnson, Mark S., Ellen, G. and Eugene, S. (2006). Influences of Customer Differences of Loyalty, Perceived Risk and Category Experience on Customer Satisfaction Ratings. International Journal of Market Research, 48(5), 601–622. [Google Scholar]
  195. Jones, T.O. and Sasser Jr., W.E. (1995). Why satisfed customers defect. Harvard Business Review, 73(6), 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  196. Kottler, P. (2000). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. [Google Scholar]
  197. Liu, Y. (2007). The long-term impact of loyalty programs on consumer purchase behavior and loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 71(4): 19–35, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.71.4.19 [Google Scholar]
  198. Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. and Dierdonck, R.V. (2003). Services Management: an integrated approach. 2nd Edition Essex: Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  199. Mittal, V. and Kamakura, W.A. (2001). Satisfaction, Repurchase Intent, and Repurchase Behavior: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Customer Characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1): 131–142, https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.38.1.131.18832 [Google Scholar]
  200. Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58: 20–38, https://doi.org/10.2307/1252308 [Google Scholar]
  201. Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(special issue 1999), https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099 [Google Scholar]
  202. Ozlem, A. and Melike, A. (2009). A Study to Determine the Effects of Customer Value on Customer Loyalty in Airline Companies Operating: Case of Turkish Air Travellers. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(6): 154–162. [Google Scholar]
  203. Pakdil, F. and Aydin, O. (2007). Expectations and perceptions in airline service: an analysis using weighted SERVQUAL scores. Journal of Air Transport Management, 13(4): 229–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2007.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  204. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251430 [Google Scholar]
  205. Rauyruen, P. and K.E. Miller (2007). Relationship Quality as a Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 60(1): 21–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  206. Reichheld, F. and Sasser, W.E. (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5): 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  207. Ringle, Ch.M., Sarstedt, M. and Zimmermann, L. (2011). Customer Satisfaction with Commercial Airlines: The Role of Perceived Safety and Purpose of Travel. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(4): 459–472, https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190407 [Google Scholar]
  208. Rose, S. (1990). The coming revolution in credit cards. Journal of Retail Banking, 12(2): 17–19. Rothschild, M.L. and Gaidis, W.C. (1981). Behavioral learning theory: its relevance to marketing and promotion. Journal of Marketing, 45(2): 70–78, https://doi.org/10.2307/1251666 [Google Scholar]
  209. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  210. Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (1994). Service quality: new directions in theory and practice. New York: Sage. Sharp, B. and Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 473–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  211. Siomkos, G.J. (2000). Managing Airline Disasters: The Role of Consumer Safety Perceptions and Sense- -Making. Journal of Air Transport Management, 6(2): 101–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6997(99)00030-7 [Google Scholar]
  212. Srinivasana, S.S., Andersona, R. and Ponnavolub, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1): 41–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00065-3 [Google Scholar]
  213. Sweeney, J.C., Soutar, G.N. and Johnson, L.W. (1999). The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: A Study in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1): 77–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80005-0 [Google Scholar]
  214. Yi, Y and Jeon, H. (2003). Effects of loyalty programs on value perception, program loyalty and brand loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3): 229–240, https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303031003002 [Google Scholar]
  215. Yu, S.-H. (2007). An Empirical Investigation on the Economic Consequences of Customer Satisfaction. Total Quality Management & Business, Excellence, 18(5): 555–569, https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701240493 [Google Scholar]
  216. Zhaohua Deng, Yaobin Lu, Kwok Kee Wei and Jinlong Zhang (2010). Understanding customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical study of mobile instant messages in China. International Journal of Information Management, 30(4): 289–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.20 [Google Scholar]

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APA style

Climis, R. . (2016). Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry. Central European Management Journal, 24(4), 49-69. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.182 (Original work published 2016)

MLA style

Climis, R. . “Factors Affecting Customer Retention In The Airline Industry”. 2016. Central European Management Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, 2016, pp. 49-69.

Chicago style

Climis, Raghda . “Factors Affecting Customer Retention In The Airline Industry”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 24, no. 4 (2016): 49-69. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.182.