en pl
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Central European Management Journal

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 2019 
Tom 27 
Numer 2

The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey

Ayse Kapusuz
Selcuk University

Mustafa Cavus
Osmaniye Korkut Ata University

2019 27 (2) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.251

Abstrakt

Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the effects of psychological capital on employees’ burn out in the work environment. This research is paired with Self-Efficacy Theory, which emphasizes that the results of efforts and performances are the most significant sources of self-efficacy.

Methodology: Data collected from 416 Turkish workers employed at public institutions in Turkey were included in the analyses to identify the effects of psychological capital on burnout by using two different types of scales (burnout and psychological capital scales) into a single questionnaire form with Likert-type response scale. Beside the Reliability Analysis, different statistical valuation methods –such as regression and correlation analyses– have also been used.

Findings: The results of analyses conducted on the sample of 416 Turkish workers reveal that statis tically significant relationships appear between self-efficacy and depersonalization, hope and low personal accomplishment, optimism and emotional exhaustion, optimism and depersonalization. Optimism is negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while positively and insignificantly related to low personal accomplishment. Both self-efficacy and optimism are signifi cantly effective in explaining depersonalization. Hope positively and significantly contributes to explain the low personal accomplishment level of employees. On the other hand, optimism negatively and significantly contributes to emotional exhaustion.

Implications: As found in the results of this research, optimism will decrease emotional exhaustion. Resilient people can more easily adapt to changes in life. Organizations may focus not only on improv ing organizational structure but also foregrounding workers’ positive personality traits and healthy psychological capital systems.

Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of em- ployees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other.

Powiązania

  1. Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of em- ployees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ardiç, K. and Polatçi, S. (2008). Tükenmişlik Sendromu: Akademisyenler üzerinde bir uygulama (GOU Örnegi). Gazi Üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(2), 69–96 [Google Scholar]
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  4. Ashforth, B.E., Saks, A.M. and Lee, R.T. (1997). On the Dimensionality Of Jones’ (1986) Measures of Organizational Socialization Tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214, http://10.1111/1468-2389.00061 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 19–215, http://10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bandura, A. (2008). An Agentic Perspective on Positive Psychology. In: S.J. Lopez (ed.), Positive Psychology: Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing [Google Scholar]
  7. Bolat, O.I. (2011). Özyeterlilik ve Tükenmişlik Ilişkisi: Lider-üye etkileşiminin aracilik etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 11(2), 255–266. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brandt, T., Gomes, J.F.S. and Boyanova, D. (2011). Personality and Psychological Capital as Indica tors of Future Job Success? A Multicultural Comparison Between Three European Countries. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja LTA, 3(11), 263–289. [Google Scholar]
  9. Budak, G. and Sürgevil, O. (2005). Tükenmişlik ve Tükenmişligi Etkileyen Örgütsel Faktörlerin Ana lizine Ilişkin Akademik Personel Üzerinde Bir Uygulama. D.E.Ü.I.I.B.F. Dergisi, 20(2), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
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  14. Çetin, F., Şeşen, H. and Basim, H.N. (2013). Örgütsel Psikolojik Sermayenin Tükenmişlik Sürecine Etkileri: Kamu sektöründe bir araştirma. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(3), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
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  20. Hmieleski, K.M. and Carr, J.C. (2007). The Relationship Between Entrepreneur Psychological Capital and Well-Being. Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College. [Google Scholar]
  21. Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K.N., Kaprinis, St. and Kaprinis, G. (2003). The Relationship Between Job Stress, Burnout, and Clinical Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75, 209–221. [Google Scholar]
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  39. Mohammadi, S., Moshfegh, E. and Joyami, E.N. (2015). Studying the Relationship Between Personality Traits of HSE Managers and Burnout. Case Study: Industry leaders in Karaj Road. Academic Journal of Economic Studies, 1(2), 56–68. [Google Scholar]
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  42. Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-Efficacy, http://www.uky.edu/ [Google Scholar]
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  44. Polatçi, S. (2014). Psikolojik Sermayenin Görev ve Baglamsal Performans Üzerindeki Etkileri: Polis teşkilatinda bir araştirma. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 14(1), 115–124. [Google Scholar]
  45. Richardson, G.E. (2002). The Metatheory of Resilience and Resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 307–321. [Google Scholar]
  46. Saglam Ari, G. and Çina Bal, E. (2008). Tükenmişlik Kavrami: Birey ve Örgütler Açisindan Önemi. Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 15(1), 131–148. [Google Scholar]
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  48. Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. and Maslach, C. (2008). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204–220. [Google Scholar]
  49. Schwab, R.L., Schuler, R.S. and Jackson, S.E. (1986). Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Fhene menon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 615–627. [Google Scholar]
  50. Smith, M., Segal, J. and Segal, R. (2015). Preventing Burnout: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Coping Strategies, http://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/preventing-burnout.htm [Google Scholar]
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  57. Ardiç, K. and Polatçi, S. (2008). Tükenmişlik Sendromu: Akademisyenler üzerinde bir uygulama (GOU Örnegi). Gazi Üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(2), 69–96 [Google Scholar]
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  59. Ashforth, B.E., Saks, A.M. and Lee, R.T. (1997). On the Dimensionality Of Jones’ (1986) Measures of Organizational Socialization Tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214, http://10.1111/1468-2389.00061 [Google Scholar]
  60. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 19–215, http://10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4 [Google Scholar]
  61. Bandura, A. (2008). An Agentic Perspective on Positive Psychology. In: S.J. Lopez (ed.), Positive Psychology: Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing [Google Scholar]
  62. Bolat, O.I. (2011). Özyeterlilik ve Tükenmişlik Ilişkisi: Lider-üye etkileşiminin aracilik etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 11(2), 255–266. [Google Scholar]
  63. Brandt, T., Gomes, J.F.S. and Boyanova, D. (2011). Personality and Psychological Capital as Indica tors of Future Job Success? A Multicultural Comparison Between Three European Countries. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja LTA, 3(11), 263–289. [Google Scholar]
  64. Budak, G. and Sürgevil, O. (2005). Tükenmişlik ve Tükenmişligi Etkileyen Örgütsel Faktörlerin Ana lizine Ilişkin Akademik Personel Üzerinde Bir Uygulama. D.E.Ü.I.I.B.F. Dergisi, 20(2), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
  65. Burisch, M. (2006). Das Burnout-Syndrom: Theorie der inneren Erschöpfung [The Burnout Syndrome: A Theory of inner Exhaustion]. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag. [Google Scholar]
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  67. Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Mishra, J.M. and Prices, S. (1995). Stress and Stress Management. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(3), 2–12. [Google Scholar]
  68. Çam, O. (2001). The Burnout in Nursing Academicians in Turkey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38, 201–207. [Google Scholar]
  69. Çetin, F., Şeşen, H. and Basim, H.N. (2013). Örgütsel Psikolojik Sermayenin Tükenmişlik Sürecine Etkileri: Kamu sektöründe bir araştirma. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(3), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
  70. Demir, K. (2011). Editörden: Pozitif Örgüt Araştirmalari (Editorial: Positive organization researches). Egitim Bilimleri Araştirmalari Dergisi. Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 1(2), http://ebad-jesr.com/ [Google Scholar]
  71. Erkmen, T. and Esen, E. (2012). Psikolojik Sermaye Konusunda 2003–2011 Yillarinda Yapilan Çalişmalarin Kategorik Olarak Incelenmesi. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(19), 89–103. [Google Scholar]
  72. Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R.H. (1974). Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Harper and Row. [Google Scholar]
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  74. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., Johnson, P., Lance Frazier, M. and Snow, D. (2009). In the Eyes of the Beholder: Transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leader ship and Organizational Studies, 15(4), 353–367. [Google Scholar]
  75. Hmieleski, K.M. and Carr, J.C. (2007). The Relationship Between Entrepreneur Psychological Capital and Well-Being. Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College. [Google Scholar]
  76. Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K.N., Kaprinis, St. and Kaprinis, G. (2003). The Relationship Between Job Stress, Burnout, and Clinical Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75, 209–221. [Google Scholar]
  77. Işikhan, V. (2004). Çalişma Hayatinda Stres ve Başa Çikma Yollari. Ankara: Sandal Yayinlari. [Google Scholar]
  78. Izgar, H. (2001). Okul Yöneticilerinde Tükenmişlik. Ankara: Nobel Yayin Dagitim [Google Scholar]
  79. Keleş, N.H. (2011). Pozitif Psikolojik Sermaye: Tanimi, bileşenleri ve örgüt yönetimine etkileri. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(2), 343–350 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kim, H.J., Shin, K.H. and Swanger, N. (2009). Burnout and Engagement: A comparative analysis using the big five personality dimensions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 96–104. [Google Scholar]
  81. Kutanis, R.O. and Tunç, T. (2010). Kişilik ve Örgütsel Yaşam: Tükenmişlik Sendromu Yönünden Bir Degerlendirme. “Iş Güç” Endüstri Ilişkileri ve Insan Kaynaklari Dergisi, 12(2), 59–74. [Google Scholar]
  82. Laugaa, D., Rascle, N. and Schwetizer, M.B. (2008). Press and Burnout Among French Primary School Elemantary Teachers. European Review Applied Psychology, 58, 241–251. [Google Scholar]
  83. Lehoczky, M.H. (2013). The Socio-Demographic Correlations of Psychological Capital. European Scientific Journal, 9(29), 1857–7881. [Google Scholar]
  84. Luthans, F. and Youssef, C.M. (2004). Human, Social, And Now Positive Psychological Capital Mana gement: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143–160. [Google Scholar]
  85. Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B. and Norman, S.M. (2007a). Psychological Capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. [Google Scholar]
  86. Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M. and Avolio, B.J. (2007b). Psychological Capital. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
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  89. Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The cost of caring. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. [Google Scholar]
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  94. Mohammadi, S., Moshfegh, E. and Joyami, E.N. (2015). Studying the Relationship Between Personality Traits of HSE Managers and Burnout. Case Study: Industry leaders in Karaj Road. Academic Journal of Economic Studies, 1(2), 56–68. [Google Scholar]
  95. Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York–London: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  96. Page, L.F. and Donohue, R. (2004). Positive Psychological Capital: A preliminary exploration of the construct. Monash University Business and Economics, Department of Management Working Paper Series, 51(4). [Google Scholar]
  97. Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-Efficacy, http://www.uky.edu/ [Google Scholar]
  98. Peterson, S.J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. and Zhang, Z. (2011). Psychological Capital and Employee Performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64, 427–450. [Google Scholar]
  99. Polatçi, S. (2014). Psikolojik Sermayenin Görev ve Baglamsal Performans Üzerindeki Etkileri: Polis teşkilatinda bir araştirma. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 14(1), 115–124. [Google Scholar]
  100. Richardson, G.E. (2002). The Metatheory of Resilience and Resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 307–321. [Google Scholar]
  101. Saglam Ari, G. and Çina Bal, E. (2008). Tükenmişlik Kavrami: Birey ve Örgütler Açisindan Önemi. Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 15(1), 131–148. [Google Scholar]
  102. Schaufeli, W.B. and Enzmann, D. (1998). The Burnout Companion to Study and Practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]
  103. Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. and Maslach, C. (2008). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204–220. [Google Scholar]
  104. Schwab, R.L., Schuler, R.S. and Jackson, S.E. (1986). Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Fhene menon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 615–627. [Google Scholar]
  105. Smith, M., Segal, J. and Segal, R. (2015). Preventing Burnout: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Coping Strategies, http://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/preventing-burnout.htm [Google Scholar]
  106. Snyder, C.R., Irwing, L. and Anderson, J.R. (1991). Hope and Health: Measuring the will and the ways. In: C.R. Snyder and D.R. Forsyth (eds.), Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology. New York: Pergamon. [Google Scholar]
  107. Soran, S. (2017). Öz Yeterlilik Teorisi. In: Ö. Turunç and H. Turgut (eds.), Yönetim ve Strateji: 101 teori ve yaklaşim. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi [Google Scholar]
  108. Storm, K. and Rothmann, S. (2003). The Relationship Between Burnout, Personality Traits and Cop ing Strategies in a Corporate Pharmaceutical Group. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(4), 35–42. [Google Scholar]
  109. Sweeney, J.T. and Summers, S.L. (2002). The Effect of the Busy Season Workload on Public Accountants’ Job Burnout. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 14, 223–245. [Google Scholar]
  110. Wyk, R. (2013). The Manifestation of Familiness Resources and Psychological Capital As Familiness Capital: A conceptual analysis. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 12(9). [Google Scholar]
  111. Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of em- ployees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other. [Google Scholar]
  112. Ardiç, K. and Polatçi, S. (2008). Tükenmişlik Sendromu: Akademisyenler üzerinde bir uygulama (GOU Örnegi). Gazi Üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(2), 69–96 [Google Scholar]
  113. Ashforth, B.E., Saks, A.M. and Lee, R.T. (1997). On the Dimensionality Of Jones’ (1986) Measures of Organizational Socialization Tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214, http://10.1111/1468-2389.00061 [Google Scholar]
  114. Ashforth, B.E., Saks, A.M. and Lee, R.T. (1997). On the Dimensionality Of Jones’ (1986) Measures of Organizational Socialization Tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214, http://10.1111/1468-2389.00061 [Google Scholar]
  115. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 19–215, http://10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4 [Google Scholar]
  116. Bandura, A. (2008). An Agentic Perspective on Positive Psychology. In: S.J. Lopez (ed.), Positive Psychology: Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing [Google Scholar]
  117. Bolat, O.I. (2011). Özyeterlilik ve Tükenmişlik Ilişkisi: Lider-üye etkileşiminin aracilik etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 11(2), 255–266. [Google Scholar]
  118. Brandt, T., Gomes, J.F.S. and Boyanova, D. (2011). Personality and Psychological Capital as Indica tors of Future Job Success? A Multicultural Comparison Between Three European Countries. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja LTA, 3(11), 263–289. [Google Scholar]
  119. Budak, G. and Sürgevil, O. (2005). Tükenmişlik ve Tükenmişligi Etkileyen Örgütsel Faktörlerin Ana lizine Ilişkin Akademik Personel Üzerinde Bir Uygulama. D.E.Ü.I.I.B.F. Dergisi, 20(2), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
  120. Burisch, M. (2006). Das Burnout-Syndrom: Theorie der inneren Erschöpfung [The Burnout Syndrome: A Theory of inner Exhaustion]. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag. [Google Scholar]
  121. Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional Burnout in Human Service Organizations. New York: Praeger. [Google Scholar]
  122. Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Mishra, J.M. and Prices, S. (1995). Stress and Stress Management. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(3), 2–12. [Google Scholar]
  123. Çam, O. (2001). The Burnout in Nursing Academicians in Turkey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38, 201–207. [Google Scholar]
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  184. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., Johnson, P., Lance Frazier, M. and Snow, D. (2009). In the Eyes of the Beholder: Transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leader ship and Organizational Studies, 15(4), 353–367. [Google Scholar]
  185. Hmieleski, K.M. and Carr, J.C. (2007). The Relationship Between Entrepreneur Psychological Capital and Well-Being. Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College. [Google Scholar]
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  187. Işikhan, V. (2004). Çalişma Hayatinda Stres ve Başa Çikma Yollari. Ankara: Sandal Yayinlari. [Google Scholar]
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  189. Keleş, N.H. (2011). Pozitif Psikolojik Sermaye: Tanimi, bileşenleri ve örgüt yönetimine etkileri. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(2), 343–350 [Google Scholar]
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  194. Luthans, F. and Youssef, C.M. (2004). Human, Social, And Now Positive Psychological Capital Mana gement: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143–160. [Google Scholar]
  195. Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B. and Norman, S.M. (2007a). Psychological Capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. [Google Scholar]
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  201. Maslach, C. (1998). Theories of Organizational Stress. In: C.L. Cooper (ed.), A Multi-dimensional Theory of Burnout. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. [Google Scholar]
  202. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B. and Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422. [Google Scholar]
  203. Masten, A. and Reed, M.J. (2002). Resilience in Development. In: R. Snyder and S. Lopez (eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford. Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  204. Mohammadi, S., Moshfegh, E. and Joyami, E.N. (2015). Studying the Relationship Between Personality Traits of HSE Managers and Burnout. Case Study: Industry leaders in Karaj Road. Academic Journal of Economic Studies, 1(2), 56–68. [Google Scholar]
  205. Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York–London: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  206. Page, L.F. and Donohue, R. (2004). Positive Psychological Capital: A preliminary exploration of the construct. Monash University Business and Economics, Department of Management Working Paper Series, 51(4). [Google Scholar]
  207. Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-Efficacy, http://www.uky.edu/ [Google Scholar]
  208. Peterson, S.J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. and Zhang, Z. (2011). Psychological Capital and Employee Performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64, 427–450. [Google Scholar]
  209. Polatçi, S. (2014). Psikolojik Sermayenin Görev ve Baglamsal Performans Üzerindeki Etkileri: Polis teşkilatinda bir araştirma. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 14(1), 115–124. [Google Scholar]
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  211. Saglam Ari, G. and Çina Bal, E. (2008). Tükenmişlik Kavrami: Birey ve Örgütler Açisindan Önemi. Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 15(1), 131–148. [Google Scholar]
  212. Schaufeli, W.B. and Enzmann, D. (1998). The Burnout Companion to Study and Practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]
  213. Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. and Maslach, C. (2008). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204–220. [Google Scholar]
  214. Schwab, R.L., Schuler, R.S. and Jackson, S.E. (1986). Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Fhene menon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 615–627. [Google Scholar]
  215. Smith, M., Segal, J. and Segal, R. (2015). Preventing Burnout: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Coping Strategies, http://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/preventing-burnout.htm [Google Scholar]
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  217. Soran, S. (2017). Öz Yeterlilik Teorisi. In: Ö. Turunç and H. Turgut (eds.), Yönetim ve Strateji: 101 teori ve yaklaşim. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi [Google Scholar]
  218. Storm, K. and Rothmann, S. (2003). The Relationship Between Burnout, Personality Traits and Cop ing Strategies in a Corporate Pharmaceutical Group. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(4), 35–42. [Google Scholar]
  219. Sweeney, J.T. and Summers, S.L. (2002). The Effect of the Busy Season Workload on Public Accountants’ Job Burnout. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 14, 223–245. [Google Scholar]
  220. Wyk, R. (2013). The Manifestation of Familiness Resources and Psychological Capital As Familiness Capital: A conceptual analysis. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 12(9). [Google Scholar]
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  224. Ashforth, B.E., Saks, A.M. and Lee, R.T. (1997). On the Dimensionality Of Jones’ (1986) Measures of Organizational Socialization Tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214, http://10.1111/1468-2389.00061 [Google Scholar]
  225. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 19–215, http://10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4 [Google Scholar]
  226. Bandura, A. (2008). An Agentic Perspective on Positive Psychology. In: S.J. Lopez (ed.), Positive Psychology: Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing [Google Scholar]
  227. Bolat, O.I. (2011). Özyeterlilik ve Tükenmişlik Ilişkisi: Lider-üye etkileşiminin aracilik etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakiş, 11(2), 255–266. [Google Scholar]
  228. Brandt, T., Gomes, J.F.S. and Boyanova, D. (2011). Personality and Psychological Capital as Indica tors of Future Job Success? A Multicultural Comparison Between Three European Countries. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja LTA, 3(11), 263–289. [Google Scholar]
  229. Budak, G. and Sürgevil, O. (2005). Tükenmişlik ve Tükenmişligi Etkileyen Örgütsel Faktörlerin Ana lizine Ilişkin Akademik Personel Üzerinde Bir Uygulama. D.E.Ü.I.I.B.F. Dergisi, 20(2), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
  230. Burisch, M. (2006). Das Burnout-Syndrom: Theorie der inneren Erschöpfung [The Burnout Syndrome: A Theory of inner Exhaustion]. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag. [Google Scholar]
  231. Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional Burnout in Human Service Organizations. New York: Praeger. [Google Scholar]
  232. Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Mishra, J.M. and Prices, S. (1995). Stress and Stress Management. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(3), 2–12. [Google Scholar]
  233. Çam, O. (2001). The Burnout in Nursing Academicians in Turkey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38, 201–207. [Google Scholar]
  234. Çetin, F., Şeşen, H. and Basim, H.N. (2013). Örgütsel Psikolojik Sermayenin Tükenmişlik Sürecine Etkileri: Kamu sektöründe bir araştirma. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(3), 95–108. [Google Scholar]
  235. Demir, K. (2011). Editörden: Pozitif Örgüt Araştirmalari (Editorial: Positive organization researches). Egitim Bilimleri Araştirmalari Dergisi. Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 1(2), http://ebad-jesr.com/ [Google Scholar]
  236. Erkmen, T. and Esen, E. (2012). Psikolojik Sermaye Konusunda 2003–2011 Yillarinda Yapilan Çalişmalarin Kategorik Olarak Incelenmesi. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(19), 89–103. [Google Scholar]
  237. Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R.H. (1974). Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Harper and Row. [Google Scholar]
  238. Friedman, H.S. and Schustack, M.W. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research. 5th Edition. Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  239. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., Johnson, P., Lance Frazier, M. and Snow, D. (2009). In the Eyes of the Beholder: Transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leader ship and Organizational Studies, 15(4), 353–367. [Google Scholar]
  240. Hmieleski, K.M. and Carr, J.C. (2007). The Relationship Between Entrepreneur Psychological Capital and Well-Being. Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College. [Google Scholar]
  241. Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K.N., Kaprinis, St. and Kaprinis, G. (2003). The Relationship Between Job Stress, Burnout, and Clinical Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75, 209–221. [Google Scholar]
  242. Işikhan, V. (2004). Çalişma Hayatinda Stres ve Başa Çikma Yollari. Ankara: Sandal Yayinlari. [Google Scholar]
  243. Izgar, H. (2001). Okul Yöneticilerinde Tükenmişlik. Ankara: Nobel Yayin Dagitim [Google Scholar]
  244. Keleş, N.H. (2011). Pozitif Psikolojik Sermaye: Tanimi, bileşenleri ve örgüt yönetimine etkileri. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(2), 343–350 [Google Scholar]
  245. Kim, H.J., Shin, K.H. and Swanger, N. (2009). Burnout and Engagement: A comparative analysis using the big five personality dimensions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 96–104. [Google Scholar]
  246. Kutanis, R.O. and Tunç, T. (2010). Kişilik ve Örgütsel Yaşam: Tükenmişlik Sendromu Yönünden Bir Degerlendirme. “Iş Güç” Endüstri Ilişkileri ve Insan Kaynaklari Dergisi, 12(2), 59–74. [Google Scholar]
  247. Laugaa, D., Rascle, N. and Schwetizer, M.B. (2008). Press and Burnout Among French Primary School Elemantary Teachers. European Review Applied Psychology, 58, 241–251. [Google Scholar]
  248. Lehoczky, M.H. (2013). The Socio-Demographic Correlations of Psychological Capital. European Scientific Journal, 9(29), 1857–7881. [Google Scholar]
  249. Luthans, F. and Youssef, C.M. (2004). Human, Social, And Now Positive Psychological Capital Mana gement: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143–160. [Google Scholar]
  250. Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B. and Norman, S.M. (2007a). Psychological Capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. [Google Scholar]
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APA style

The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey. (2019). The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey. Central European Management Journal, 27(2), 33-47. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.251 (Original work published 2019)

MLA style

„The Effects Of Psychological Capital On Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey”. 2019. Central European Management Journal, t. 27, nr 2, 2019, ss. 33-47.

Chicago style

„The Effects Of Psychological Capital On Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 27, nr 2 (2019): 33-47. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.251.