The following paper is a comparative analysis of high speed rail in Poland and in Japan.
Ulrich’s product architecture was used for this purpose along with its extension created
by Takahiro Fujimoto. Based on the secondary data analyses, significant differences in
high speed rail systems in Poland and Japan were found. The aim of this paper was finding
the reasons behind the abovementioned differences. The answer to that question was
found with the theory of product architecture and Product Architecture Matrix, used in
the context of complex services. After analyzing theory and examples of Poland and Japan,
it was concluded that in case of high speed rail, integral product architecture outperforms
modular product architecture.