en pl
en pl

Central European Management Journal

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 6/2022 
Tom 30 
Numer 2

Enhancing Service Brand Passion Through Self-Congruity: The Moderating Role of Gender and Age

Faheem Gilal
Sukkur IBA University

Amjad Memon
Sukkur IBA University

Naeem Gilal
Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Rukhsana Gilal
Sukkur IBA University

Ahsan Memon
Sukkur IBA University

6/2022 30 (2) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.76

Abstrakt

Purpose: Using congruity theory, triangular theory of love, gender schema theory, and generational cohort theory, this study aimed to examine the relationships between congruity types and consumers’ service brand passion, along with the moderation effect of gender (i.e. male vs. female customers) and age (i.e. young vs. older customers) in these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach: A total of N=252 valid responses were collected from the customers of service brands (e.g. bus riders), and the theoretical model was tested using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), structural equation modeling (SEM), and moderation analysis techniques.

Findings: After assessing four types of congruity, we discovered that the influence of brand use image congruity had the greatest impact on service brand passion, followed by brand user image congruity, and actual self-congruity. Our moderation variable of gender revealed that the effect of actual self-congruity is more essential in building service brand passion among male than female customers, whereas the effect of ideal self-congruity is more important among female than male customers. Similarly, the effect of ideal self-congruity is more essential for boosting service brand passion among young than older customers, while brand use image congruity better promotes service brand passion among older but not young customers.

Implications: This study offers strategies for boosting service brand passion among male (vs. female) and young (vs. older) customers in emerging markets.
Originality: This is the first study to look into the effects of congruity types on service brand passion, and it has given marketers a framework for targeting customers based on their gender and age.

Powiązania

  1. Aaker, D.A. (1991). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing On the Value of a Brand Name. New York: Free Press. [Google Scholar]
  2. Aaker, D.A. (1996). Building Strong Brands. New York: Free Press. [Google Scholar]
  3. Aaker, J.L. (1999). The Malleable Self: The Role of Self-Expression in Persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 36, 45–57.https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379903600104. [Google Scholar]
  4. Aaker, J.L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–356. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379703400304. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahuvia, A.C. (2005). Beyond the extended self: Loved objects and consumers' identity narratives. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(1),171–184.https://doi.org/10.1086/429607. [Google Scholar]
  6. Albert, N., Merunka, D., and Valette-Florence, P. (2008). When consumers love their brands: Exploring the concept and its dimensions. Journal of Business Research, 61, 1062–1075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.09.014. [Google Scholar]
  7. Albert, N., Merunka, D., and Valette-Florence, P. (2013). Brand passion: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 904–909. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.12.009. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bai, S., Yin, Y., Yu, Y., Wei, S., and Wu, R. (2021). Effects of Self-Expressive Brand and Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence on Brand Addiction: Mediating Role of Brand Passion. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 168. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.602023. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bauer, H.H., Heinrich, D., and Martin, I. (2007). How to create high emotional consumer-brand relationships? The causalities of brand passion. Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Market Acad, University of Otago, 2189–2198. [Google Scholar]
  10. Bauer, H.H., Heinrich, D., and Schäfer, D.B. (2013). The effects of organic labels on global, local, and private brands: More hype than substance? Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1035–1043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.12.028. [Google Scholar]
  11. Belk, Russell W. (1988). Possessions and the Extended Self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139–168. https://doi.org/10.1086/209154. [Google Scholar]
  12. Birdwell, A.E. (1968). A study of the influence of image congruity on consumer choice. The Journal of Business, 41(1), 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1086/295047. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bowlby, J. (1979). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London (Tavistock). [Google Scholar]
  14. Christodoulides, G. and Veloutsou, C. (2009). The impact of self-congruity and brand relations on brand equity facets. 37th European Marketing Academy Conference (EMAC), 26–29 May, Nantes, France. [Google Scholar]
  15. Coley, A. and Burgess, B. (2003). Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 7(3), 282–295. https://doi.org/10.1108/13612020310484834. [Google Scholar]
  16. Confente, I., Scarpi, D., and Russo, I. (2020). Marketing a new generation of bio-plastics products for a circular economy: The role of green self-identity, self-congruity, and perceived value. Journal of Business Research, 112, 431–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.10.030. [Google Scholar]
  17. Cuesta-Valiño, P., Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, P., Sierra-Fernández, M. P., and García, M.B.A. (2021). Measuring a multidimensional green brand equity: a tool for entrepreneurship development. British Food Journal, 123(10), 3326–3343. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-07-2020-0639. [Google Scholar]
  18. de Acedo Lizárraga, M.L.S., de Acedo Baquedano, M.T.S., and Cardelle-Elawar, M. (2007). Factors that affect decision making: gender and age differences. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 7(3), 381–391. [Google Scholar]
  19. Dolich, I.J. (1969). Congruity relationships between self-images and product brands. Journal of Marketing Research, 6(1), 80–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224376900600109. [Google Scholar]
  20. Eriksen, M.K. and Joseph Sirgy, M. (1989). Achievement Motivation and Clothing Behavior of Working Women. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(4), 307–326. [Google Scholar]
  21. Fabrigar, L.R., Wegener, D.T., MacCallum, R.C., and Strahan, E.J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.4.3.272. [Google Scholar]
  22. Fan, M., Khalique, A., Qalati, S.A., Gillal, F.G., and Gillal, R.G. (2021). Antecedents of sustainable e-waste disposal behavior: the moderating role of gender. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17275-y. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M.F., and Buss, A.H. (1975). Public and Private Self Consciousness: Assessment and Theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522–527. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076760. [Google Scholar]
  24. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373. https://doi.org/10.1086/209515. [Google Scholar]
  25. Gilal, F.G., Paul, J., Gilal, N.G., and Gilal, R.G. (2021). Strategic CSR‐brand fit and customers' brand passion: Theoretical extension and analysis. Psychology & Marketing, 38(5), 759–773. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21464. [Google Scholar]
  26. Gilal, F.G., Chandani, K., Gilal, R.G., Gilal, N.G., Gilal, W.G., and Channa, N.A. (2020a). Towards a new model for green consumer behaviour: A self‐determination theory perspective. Sustainable Development, 28(4), 711–722. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2021. [Google Scholar]
  27. Gilal, F.G., Channa, N.A., Gilal, N.G., Gilal, R.G., and Shah, S.M.M. (2019d). Association between a teacher's work passion and a student's work passion: a moderated mediation model. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 12, 889–900. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S212004. [Google Scholar]
  28. Gilal, F.G., Gilal, N.G., Tariq, B., Gilal, R.G., Gilal, R.G., Gong, Z., and Channa, N.A. (2020). Intergenerational differences in fans' motivation to watch the T20 world cup: A generation cohort theory perspective. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-09-2019-0094. [Google Scholar]
  29. Gilal, F.G., Memon, A.A., Gilal, R.G., Gilal, N.G., and Memon, A.A. (2020c). Towards a new framework for mapping service brand avoidance: the moderating effect of gender and generation cohorts. International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, 12(2), 119–145. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJISCM.2020.115829. [Google Scholar]
  30. Gilal, F.G., Paul, J., Gilal, N.G., and Gilal, R.G. (2019c). Celebrity endorsement and brand passion among air travelers: Theory and evidence. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2019.10018446. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gilal, F.G., Zhang, J., Gilal, N.G., and Gilal, R.G. (2018). Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 227–241. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S161269. [Google Scholar]
  32. Gilal, F.G., Zhang, J., Gilal, R.G., and Gilal, N.G. (2020b). Linking motivational regulation to brand passion in a moderated model of customer gender and age: an organismic integration theory perspective. Review of Managerial Science, 14(1), 87–113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-018-0287-y. [Google Scholar]
  33. Gilal, F.G., Zhang, J., Paul, J., and Gilal, N.G. (2019a). The role of self-determination theory in marketing science: An integrative review and agenda for research. European Management Journal, 37(1), 29–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2018.10.004. [Google Scholar]
  34. Gilal, N.G., Zhang, J., Gilal, F.G., and Gilal, R.G. (2020). Bygone days and memories: the effects of nostalgic ads on consumer brand resurrection movements. Journal of Brand Management, 27(2), 160–180. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-019-00170-w. [Google Scholar]
  35. Gilal, R.G., Gilal, N.G., Gilal, F.G., and Gong, Z. (2022a). The role of nostalgic brand positioning in capturing brand equity: Theoretical extension and analysis. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 46(1), 161–181. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12653. [Google Scholar]
  36. Gilal, F.G., Paul, J., Gilal, N.G., and Gilal, R.G. (2022b). The role of organismic integration theory in marketing science: A systematic review and research agenda. European Management Journal, 40(2), 208–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2021.02.001. [Google Scholar]
  37. Gill, S., Stockard, J., Johnson, M. and Williams, S. (1987). Measuring gender differences: The expressive dimension and critique of androgyny scales. Sex Roles, 17, 375–400. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00288142. [Google Scholar]
  38. Gould, S.J. and Barak, B. (1988). Public SelfConsciousness and Consumption Behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 128(3), 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1988.9713756. [Google Scholar]
  39. Grohmann, B. (2009). Gender Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 46, 105–119. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.46.1.105. [Google Scholar]
  40. Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., and Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River. [Google Scholar]
  41. Hee Kwak, D., and Kang, J.H. (2009). Symbolic purchase in sport: the roles of self-image congruity and perceived quality. Management Decision, 47(1), 85–99. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740910929713. [Google Scholar]
  42. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 10(4), 15–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.1980.11656300. [Google Scholar]
  43. Hur, W.M., Kim, H., and Kim, W.M. (2014). The moderating roles of gender and age in tablet computer adoption. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0435. [Google Scholar]
  44. Ibrahim, H. and Najjar, F. (2008). Assessing the effects of self-congruity, attitudes and customer satisfaction on customer behavioral intentions in the retail environment. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 26(2), 207–227. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500810860638. [Google Scholar]
  45. Jamal, A., and Goode, M.M. (2001). Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self‐image congruity on brand preference and satisfaction. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(7), 482–492. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500110408286. [Google Scholar]
  46. Jacob, I., Khanna, M., and Rai, K.A. (2020). Attribution analysis of luxury brands: an investigation into consumer-brand congruity through conspicuous consumption. Journal of Business Research, 116, 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.007. [Google Scholar]
  47. Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1),1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700101. [Google Scholar]
  48. Koo, W., Cho, E., and Kim, Y.K. (2014). Actual and ideal self-congruity affecting consumers' emotional and behavioral responses toward an online store. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.058. [Google Scholar]
  49. Kumagai, K., and Nagasawa, S.Y. (2016). The influence of social self-congruity on Japanese consumers' luxury and non-luxury apparel brand attitudes. Luxury Research Journal, 1(2), 128–149. https://doi.org/10.1504/LRJ.2016.078130. [Google Scholar]
  50. Lazzari, R., Fioravanti, M. and Gough, H.G. (1978). A New Scale for the Adjective Check List Based on Self Versus Ideal-Self Discrepancies. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(2), 361–65. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(197804)34:2<361::AID-JCLP2270340218>3.0.CO;2-6. [Google Scholar]
  51. Li, S., Wei, M., Qu, H., and Qiu, S. (2020). How does self-image congruity affect tourists' environmentally responsible behavior? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(12), 2156–2174. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1800717. [Google Scholar]
  52. Liu, F., Li, J., Mizerski, D., and Soh, H. (2012). Self-congruity, brand attitude, and brand loyalty: a study on luxury brands. European Journal of Marketing, 46(7/8), 922–937. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090561211230098. [Google Scholar]
  53. Lu, J., and Xu, Y. (2015). Chinese young consumers' brand loyalty toward sportswear products: a perspective of self-congruity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(4), 365–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-05-2014-0593. [Google Scholar]
  54. Malär, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W.D., and Nyffenegger, B. (2011). Emotional brand attachment and brand personality: The relative importance of the actual and the ideal self. Journal of Marketing, 75(4), 35–52. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.75.4.35. [Google Scholar]
  55. Malhotra, N.K. (1981). A scale to measure self-concepts, person concepts, and product concepts. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(4), 456–464. [Google Scholar]
  56. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800407. [Google Scholar]
  57. Manyiwa, S. (2020). Impact of dance in advertisements on emotional attachment towards the advertised brand: Self-congruity theory. Journal of Promotion Management, 26(1), 144–161. [Google Scholar]
  58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496491.2019.1685620. [Google Scholar]
  59. Marsden, P. (2006). Consumer Advisory Panels: The Next Big Thing in Word-of-Mouth Marketing? Market Leader, Summer, 2–4. [Google Scholar]
  60. Matzler K., Pichler, E.A., Hemetsberger, A. (2007). Who is spreading the word? The positive influence of extraversion on consumer passion and brand evangelism. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association. [Google Scholar]
  61. Moons, I., De Pelsmacker, P., and Barbarossa, C. (2020). Do personality-and self-congruity matter for the willingness to pay more for ecotourism? An empirical study in Flanders, Belgium. Journal of Cleaner Production. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122866. [Google Scholar]
  62. Meeprom, S., and Fakfare, P. (2021). Unpacking the role of self-congruity, attendee engagement and emotional attachment in cultural events. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 12(4), 399–417. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEFM-02-2021-0018. [Google Scholar]
  63. Pamuksuz, U., Yun, J.T., and Humphreys, A. (2021). A Brand-New Look at You: Predicting Brand Personality in Social Media Networks with Machine Learning. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 56, 55–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2021.05.001. [Google Scholar]
  64. Park, C.W., Jaworski, B.J., and MacInnis, D.J. (1986). Strategic brand concept-image management. Journal of Marketing, 50(4), 135–145. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298605000401. [Google Scholar]
  65. Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. In F.L. Orlando, L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 19, Academic Press, 123–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60214-2. [Google Scholar]
  66. Pradhan, D., Duraipandian, I., and Sethi, D. (2016). Celebrity endorsement: How celebrity-brand-user personality congruity affects brand attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Marketing Communications, 22(5), 456–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2014.914561. [Google Scholar]
  67. Preacher, K.J., Rucker, D.D., and Hayes, A.F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170701341316. [Google Scholar]
  68. Quester, P.G., Karunaratna, A., and Kee Goh, L. (2000). Self-congruity and product evaluation: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(6), 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760010349939. [Google Scholar]
  69. Roy, R., and Rabbanee, F.K. (2015). Antecedents and consequences of self-congruity. European Journal of Marketing, 49(3/4), 444–466. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-12-2013-0739. [Google Scholar]
  70. Shahid, S., Paul, J., Gilal, F.G., and Ansari, S. (2022). The role of sensory marketing and brand experience in building emotional attachment and brand loyalty in luxury retail stores. Psychology & Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21661. [Google Scholar]
  71. Scheier, M. F. (1980). Effects of public and private self-consciousness on the public expression of personal beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 514–521. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.3.514. [Google Scholar]
  72. Schnittka, O., Sattler, H., and Zenker, S. (2012). Advanced brand concept maps: A new approach for evaluating the favorability of brand association networks. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(3), 265-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2012.04.002. [Google Scholar]
  73. Schouten, J.W., and McAlexander, J.H. (1995). Subcultures of consumption: An ethnography of the new bikers. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(1), 43–61. https://doi.org/10.1086/209434. [Google Scholar]
  74. Šegota, T., Chen, N., and Golja, T. (2021). The impact of self-congruity and evaluation of the place on WOM: Perspectives of tourism destination residents. Journal of Travel Research, 00472875211008237. https://doi.org/10.1177/00472875211008237. [Google Scholar]
  75. Shetty, K., and Fitzsimmons, J.R. (2021). The effect of brand personality congruity, brand attachment, and brand love on loyalty among HENRY's in the luxury branding sector. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-09-2020-0208. [Google Scholar]
  76. Sirgy, M.J., and Danes, J.E. (1982). Self-image/product-image congruity models: Testing selected models. ACR North American Advances. [Google Scholar]
  77. Sirgy, M.J., Johar, J.S., Samli, A.C., and Claiborne, C.B. (1991). Self-congruity versus functional congruity: Predictors of consumer behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(4), 363–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02726512. [Google Scholar]
  78. Sirgy, M.J., Lee, D.J., Johar, J.S., and Tidwell, J. (2008). Effect of self-congruity with sponsorship on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61(10), 1091–1097. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.09.022. [Google Scholar]
  79. Sirgy, M.J. and Samli, A.C. (1985). "A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-Concept, Store Image, Socioeconomic Status, and Geographic Loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 13(Summer), 265–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02729950. [Google Scholar]
  80. Sirgy, M.J. (1986). Self-Congruity: Toward a Theory of Personality and Cybernetics. Praeger Publishers, New York, NY. [Google Scholar]
  81. Sirgy, M.J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T.F. and Park, J.O. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring self-image congruity. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 25(3), 229–238. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070397253004. [Google Scholar]
  82. Sternberg, R.J. (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93(2), 119. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119. [Google Scholar]
  83. Sternberg, R.J. (1997). Construct Validation of a Triangular Love Scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 313–335. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199705)27:3<313::AID-EJSP824>3.0.CO;2-4. [Google Scholar]
  84. Swimberghe, K.R., Astakhova, M., and Wooldridge, B.R. (2014). A new dualistic approach to brand passion: Harmonious and obsessive. Journal of Business Research, 67(12), 2657–2665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.04.003. [Google Scholar]
  85. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D.J., and Whan Park, C. (2005). The Ties That Bind: Measuring the Strength of Consumers' Emotional Attachments to Brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1501_10. [Google Scholar]
  86. Vallerand, R.J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G.A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., and Marsolais, J. (2003). Les passions de l'ame: on obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 756–767. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756. [Google Scholar]
  87. Wallendorf, M., and Arnould, E.J. (1988). My favorite things": A cross-cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness, and social linkage. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(4), 531–547. https://doi.org/10.1086/209134. [Google Scholar]
  88. Wang, T., Thai, T.D.H., Ly, P.T.M., and Chi, T.P. (2021). Turning social endorsement into brand passion. Journal of Business Research, 126, 429–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.01.011 [Google Scholar]
  89. Wood, J.T. (1990). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. [Google Scholar]
  90. Xie, Y., Peng, S., and Hampson, D.P. (2020). Brand user imagery clarity (BUIC): conceptualization, measurement, and consequences. Journal of Brand Management, 27(6), 662–678. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-020-00202-w. [Google Scholar]
  91. Zogaj, A., Tscheulin, D. K., and Olk, S. (2021b). Benefits of matching consumers' personality: Creating perceived trustworthiness via actual self‐congruity and perceived competence via ideal self‐congruity. Psychology & Marketing, 38(3), 416–430. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21439. [Google Scholar]
  92. Zogaj, A., Tscheulin, D.K., Lindenmeier, J., and Olk, S. (2021a). Linking actual self-congruity, ideal self-congruity, and functional congruity to donor loyalty: the moderating role of issue involvement. Journal of Business Economics, 91(3), 379–400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11573-020-01006-9. [Google Scholar]

Kompletne metadane

Cytowanie zasobu

APA style

Enhancing Service Brand Passion Through Self-Congruity: The Moderating Role of Gender and Age. (2022). Enhancing Service Brand Passion Through Self-Congruity: The Moderating Role of Gender and Age. Central European Management Journal, 30(2), 83–102. https://doi.org/10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.76 (Original work published 6/2022n.e.)

MLA style

„Enhancing Service Brand Passion Through Self-Congruity: The Moderating Role Of Gender And Age”. 6/2022n.e. Central European Management Journal, t. 30, nr 2, 2022, ss. 83–102.

Chicago style

„Enhancing Service Brand Passion Through Self-Congruity: The Moderating Role Of Gender And Age”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 30, nr 2 (2022): 83–102. doi:10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.76.