en pl
en pl

Central European Management Journal

Zobacz wydanie
Rok 2019 
Tom 27 
Numer 3

The Relationships Between Psychological Contract Expectations and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employer Perception

2019 27 (3) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.4


Purpose: The article attempts to identify the relationship between employers’ psychological contract
perception (relational and transactional expectations) and the occurrence of counterproductive
work behavior among their employees. The study seeks to extend the understanding of the
psychological contract concept and its correlation with counterproductive work behaviors. There
are numerous studies analyzing the perceptions of obligations and promises of a psychological contract
from the employee’s viewpoint. However, the question of employer expectations and the
perception of the fulfillment of these expectations is not less important, albeit much less

Methodology: Participants were 101 managers and owners of small and medium companies who
represent different businesses in construction industry in the Ukrainian market. Data were collected
through a questionnaire.

Key findings: The results of the study show that employers have a high level of expectations toward
their employees, and the relational character of the expectations is dominant. However, the perceptions
of the fulfillment of these expectations were at a moderate level. The results also show
that employers reveal a moderate level of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and a significant
relationship between psychological contract (PC), relational expectations, an


  1. Adamska, K. (2011). Kontrakt psychologiczny w organizacji-Kwestionariusz Kontraktu Psychologicznego. Psychologia Społeczna, 63(18), 267–283. [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, B. (2014). Psychological Contracts: A Feature Based Approach to Understanding Transactional and Relational Contracts. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. 2264. The University of Western Ontario. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bal, M., De Lange, A., Jansen, P. and Van Der Velde, M. (2008). Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(1), 143–158, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Białas, S. and Litwin, J. (2013). Satysfakcja z pracy i przejawy zachowań kontrproduktywnych wśród pracowników spółki przemysłu stoczniowego. Studium przypadku. Zarządzanie i Finanse, 4(1). [Google Scholar]
  5. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  6. Blomme, R., Van Rheede, A. and Tromp, D. (2010). The use of the psychological contract to explain turnover intentions in the hospitality industry: a research study on the impact of gender on the turnover intentions of highly educated employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(1), 144–162, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190903466954 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bordia, P., Restubog, S. and Tang, R. (2008). When employees strike back: Investigating mediating mechanisms between psychological contract breach and workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1104–1117, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1104 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bruursema, K. (2004). Leadership style and the link with counterproductive work behavior (CWB): An investigation using the job-stress/CWB model, https://doi.org/10.1037/e518612013-305 [Google Scholar]
  9. Carlson, D. and Perrewe, P. (1995). Institutionalization of organizational ethics through transformational leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(10), 829–838, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00872349 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chang, H., Hsu, H., Liou, J., and Tsai, C. (2013). Psychological contracts and innovative behavior; a moderated path analysis of work engagement and job resources. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(10), 2120–2135, https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12165 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chao, J., Cheung, F. and Wu, A. (2011). Psychological contract breach and counterproductive workplace behaviours: testing moderating effect of attribution style and power distance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(04), 763–777, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.555122 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen, Z., Tsui, A. and Zhong, L. (2007). Reactions to psychological contract breach: a dual perspective. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29, 527–548, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.481. [Google Scholar]
  13. Conway, N. and Briner, R. (2002). A daily diary study of affective responses to psychological contract breach and exceed promises. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(3), 287–302, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.139. [Google Scholar]
  14. Coyle-Shapiro, J. (2002). A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(8), 927–946, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.173. [Google Scholar]
  15. Coyle-Shapiro, J. and Kessler, I. (2000). Consequences of the psychological contract for the employment relationship: a large-scale survey. Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 903–930, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00210. [Google Scholar]
  16. Coyle-Shapiro, J. and Kessler, I. (2002). Reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: Employee and Employer perspectives. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11(1), 69–86, https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320143000852. [Google Scholar]
  17. Dabos, G. and Rousseau, D. (2004). Mutuality and Reciprocity in the Psychological Contracts of Employees and Employers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 52–72, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.52. [Google Scholar]
  18. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. and Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42–51, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42. [Google Scholar]
  19. Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L. and Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.565. [Google Scholar]
  20. Erkutlu, H. and Chafra, J. (2013). Effects of trust and psychological contract violation on authentic leadership and organizational deviance. Management Research Review, 36(9), 828–848, https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-06-2012-0136. [Google Scholar]
  21. Freese, C. and Schalk, R. (2008). How to measure the psychological contract? A critical criteria-based review of measures. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 269–286, https://doi.org/10.1177/008124630803800202. [Google Scholar]
  22. Geddes, D. and Baron, R.A. (1997). Workplace aggression as a consequence of negative performance feedback. Management Communication Quarterly, 10(4), 433–454, https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318997104002. [Google Scholar]
  23. Goffee, R. and Scase, R. (1995). Corporate Realities: The Dynamics of Large and Small Organizations. New York: Routledge Revivals. [Google Scholar]
  24. Goodwin, V., Wofford, J. and Whittington, J. (2001). A theoretical and empirical extension to the transformational leadership construct. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 22(7), 759–774, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.111. [Google Scholar]
  25. Gouldner, A. (1960). The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2),161–178, https://doi.org/10.2307/2092623. [Google Scholar]
  26. Grimmer, M. and Oddy, M. (2007). Violation of the Psychological Contract: The Mediating Effect of Relational Versus Transactional Beliefs. Australian Journal of Management, 32(1), 153–174, https://doi.org/10.1177/031289620703200109. [Google Scholar]
  27. Guest, D. (1998). Is the Psychological Contract Worth Taking Seriously? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 649–664, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(1998)19:1+<649::AID-JOB970>3.0.CO;2-T. [Google Scholar]
  28. Guest, D. (2004). The psychology of the employment relationship: An analysis based on the psychological contract. Applied Psychology an International Review, 53(4), 541–555, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00187.x. [Google Scholar]
  29. Guest, D. and Conway, N. (2002). Communicating the psychological contract: an employer perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(2), 22–38, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2002.tb00062.x. [Google Scholar]
  30. Henderson, D., Wayne, S., Shore, L., Bommer, W. and Tetrick, L. (2008). Leader-Member Exchange, Differentiation, and Psychological Contract Fulfillment: A Multilevel Examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1208–1219, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012678. [Google Scholar]
  31. Herriot, P., Manning, W. and Kidd, J. (1997). The Content of the Psychological Contract. British Journal of Management, 8, 151–162, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.0047. [Google Scholar]
  32. Hussain, A. (2014). The relationship between breach of psychological contract and workplace deviant behavior. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2). [Google Scholar]
  33. Jensen, J.M., Opland, R.A. and Ryan, A. M. (2010). Psychological contracts and counterproductive work behaviors: Employee responses to transactional and relational breach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 555–568, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9148-7. [Google Scholar]
  34. Jensen, J., Opland, R. and Ryan, A. (2010). Psychological Contracts and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employee Responses to Transactional and Relational Breach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 555–568, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9148-7. [Google Scholar]
  35. Jones, E., Kantak, D.M., Futrell, C.M. and Johnston, M.W. (1996). Leader Behavior, Work-Attitudes, and Turnover of Salespeople: An Integrative Study. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 13–23. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kasekende, F. (2017). Psychological contract, engagement and employee discretionary behaviours: Perspectives from Uganda. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 66(7), 896–913, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-07-2016-0136. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kessler, S., Bruursema, K., Rodopman, B. and Spector, P. (2013). Leadership, interpersonal conflict, and counterproductive work behavior: An examination of the stressor-strain process. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 6(3), 180–190, https://doi.org/10.1111/ncmr.12009. [Google Scholar]
  38. Kickul, J.R., Neuman, G., Parker, C. and Finkl, J. (2001). Settling the score: The role of organizational justice in the relationship between psychological contract breach and anticitizenship behavior. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 13(2), 77–93, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014586225406. [Google Scholar]
  39. Kickul, J. and Lester, S.W. (2001). Broken promises: Equity sensitivity as a moderator between psychological contract breach and employee attitudes and behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2), 191–217, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011105132252. [Google Scholar]
  40. Langton, L., Piquero, N.L. and Hollinger, R.C. (2006). An empirical test of the relationship between employee theft and low self-control. Deviant Behavior, 27(5), 537–565, https://doi.org/10.1080/01639620600781548. [Google Scholar]
  41. Lester, S., Turnley, W., Bloodgood, J. and Bolino, M. (2002). Not seeing eye to eye: differences in supervisor and subordinate perceptions of and attributions for psychological contract breach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 39–56, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.126. [Google Scholar]
  42. Lewin, J.E. and Sager, J.K. (2010). The influence of personal characteristics and coping strategies on salespersons' turnover intentions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 30(4), 355–370, https://doi.org/10.2753/PSS0885-3134300405. [Google Scholar]
  43. Lewin, J.E. and Sager, J.K. (2010). The influence of personal characteristics and coping strategies on salespersons' turnover intentions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 30(4), 355–370, https://doi.org/10.2753/PSS0885-3134300405. [Google Scholar]
  44. MacKenzie, S., Podsakoff, P. and Rich, G. (2001). Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Salesperson Performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 115–134, https://doi.org/10.1177/03079459994506. [Google Scholar]
  45. Macko, M. (2009). Poczucie sprawiedliwości organizacyjnej a zachowania pracowników. Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNS UAM. [Google Scholar]
  46. McDermott, A., Conway, E., Rousseau, D. and Flood, P. (2013). Promoting effective psychological contracts through leadership: The missing link between HR strategy and performance. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 289–310, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21529. [Google Scholar]
  47. Millward, L. and Hopkins, L. (1998). Psychological contracts, organizational and job commitment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(16), 1530–1556, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01689.x. [Google Scholar]
  48. Minjina, B. (2011). Counterproductive work behaviours and their relationship with the psychological contract: Study on the sleep during the night security shift. Romanian Journal of Psychology, 1(1), 19–30. [Google Scholar]
  49. Montes, S. and Irving, P. (2008). Disentangling the effects of promised and delivered inducements: Relational and transactional contract elements and the mediating role of trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1367, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012851. [Google Scholar]
  50. Morrison, E. and Robinson, S. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: a model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 226–256, https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1997.9707180265. [Google Scholar]
  51. Nadin, S. and Cassell, C. (2007). New deal for old? – Exploring the psychological contract in a small firm environment. International Small Business Journal, 25(4), 417–443, https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242607078587. [Google Scholar]
  52. Nadin, S. and Williams, C. (2011). Psychological contract violation beyond an employee's perspective. The perspective of employers. Employee Relations, 34(2), 110–125, https://doi.org/10.1108/01425451211191841. [Google Scholar]
  53. Omotayo, O. and Olubusayo, H. (2015). An Assessment of Workplace Deviant Behaviours and Its Implication on Organizational Performance in a Growing Economy. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 90–100. [Google Scholar]
  54. Özdemir, M. and Demircioglu, E. (2015). The Relationship Between Counterproductive Work Behaviors and Psychological Contracts in Public High Schools. Çukurova Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 45(1), 41–60, https://doi.org/10.14812/cufej.2015.003. [Google Scholar]
  55. Pate, J., Martin, G. and McGoldrick, J. (2003). The impact of psychological contract violation on employee attitudes and behaviour. Employee Relations, 25(6), 557–573, https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450310501306. [Google Scholar]
  56. Pawłowska, A. and Postuła, A. (2014). Pracownik i pracodawca-wykorzystanie technik projekcyjnych w badaniu postrzegania wzajemnych relacji. Problemy Zarządzania, 1(45), 30–49, https://doi.org/10.7172/1644-9584.45.3. [Google Scholar]
  57. Pawłowska, A. and Postuła, A. (2014). Pracownik i pracodawca-wykorzystanie technik projekcyjnych w badaniu postrzegania wzajemnych relacji. Problemy Zarządzania, 1(45), 30–49, https://doi.org/10.7172/1644-9584.45.3. [Google Scholar]
  58. Poisat, P. and Theron, A. (2014). Managing the Psychological Contract During a Psychological Recession. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9), 283–296. [Google Scholar]
  59. Porter, L., Pearce, J., Tripoli, A. and Lewis, K. (1998). Differential Perceptions of Employers' Inducements: Implications for Psychological Contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19 (special issue: The Psychological Contract at Work), 769–782, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(1998)19:1+<769::AID-JOB968>3.0.CO;2-1. [Google Scholar]
  60. Preacher, K. and Leonardelli, G. (2001). Calculation for the Sobel test: An interactive calculation tool for mediation tests, http://quantpsy.org/sobel/sobel.htm; 01.2001. [Google Scholar]
  61. Raykov, T. (1998). On the use of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(2), 291–293, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00159-1 [Google Scholar]
  62. Restubog, S.L.D., Zagenczyk, T.J., Bordia, P. and Tang, R.L. (2013). When employees behave badly: The roles of contract importance and workplace familism in predicting negative reactions to psychological contract breach. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(3), 673–686, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2013.01046.x. [Google Scholar]
  63. Rogozinska-Pawelczyk, A. (2011). Od relacyjnego do transakcyjnego kontraktu psychologicznego-zmieniajacy sie paradygmat. Zarządzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi, 3, 61–76. [Google Scholar]
  64. Rousseau, D. (1995). Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. California: Sage Publications, https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452231594 [Google Scholar]
  65. Rousseau, D. (2000). Psychological Contract Inventory Technical Report. Graduate School of Industrial Administration Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [Google Scholar]
  66. Rousseau, D. (2004). Psychological Contracts in the Workplace: Understanding the Ties That Motivate. Academy of Management Perspectives, 18(1), 120–127, [Google Scholar]
  67. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2004.12689213 [Google Scholar]
  68. Sharkawi, S., Rahman, A. and Azura, D. (2013). Relationship between Person Organization Fit, Psychological Contract Violation on Counterproductive Work Behaviour. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(4), 173–183. [Google Scholar]
  69. Sharma, A., Kalpna, T. (2016). Counterproductive Work Behaviour: The Role of Psychological Contract Violation. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach and Studies, 3(1), 13–27. [Google Scholar]
  70. Spector, P., Fox, S. and Penney, L. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductive: Are all counterproductive behaviours created equal? Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 68, 446–460, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.10.005. [Google Scholar]
  71. Sturges, J., Conway, N., Guest, D. and Liefooghe, A. (2005). Managing the career deal: the psychological contract as a framework for understanding career management, organizational commitment and work behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(7), 821–838, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.341. [Google Scholar]
  72. Tekleab, A. and Taylor, S. (2003). Aren't there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization-employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 585–608, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.204. [Google Scholar]
  73. Tsui, A., Pearce, J., Porter, L. and Tripoli, A. (1997). Alternative Approaches to the Employee-Organization Relationship: Does Investments in Employees Pay Off? Academy of Management Journal, 40(5), 1089–1121, https://doi.org/10.5465/256928. [Google Scholar]
  74. Turek, D., Wojtczuk Turek, A., and Horodecka, A. (2014). Selected Determinants Impact Determinants of the Effects of Justice on the attitudes and behaviour of Employees in the Organization. Comparative surveys-Poland and New Zeland. Organisation and Management, 3(163), 113–140. [Google Scholar]
  75. Vlasios, S. (2007). The psychological Contract and Small Firms: A Literature Review. Kingston Business School Working Paper Series. Kingston University. [Google Scholar]

Kompletne metadane

Cytowanie zasobu

APA style

Protsiuk, Olga (2019). Protsiuk, O. . (2019). The Relationships Between Psychological Contract Expectations and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employer Perception. Central European Management Journal, 27(3), 85-106. https://doi.org/10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.4 (Original work published 2019)

MLA style

Protsiuk, Olga. Protsiuk, O. . „The Relationships Between Psychological Contract Expectations And Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employer Perception”. 2019. Central European Management Journal, t. 27, nr 3, 2019, ss. 85-106.

Chicago style

Protsiuk, Olga. Protsiuk, Olga . „The Relationships Between Psychological Contract Expectations And Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employer Perception”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 27, nr 3 (2019): 85-106. doi:10.7206/cemj.2658-0845.4.