# Wyniki wyszukiwania

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to overview the research on inequalities in economics. The paper is based on mainstream and heterodox economic theories and approaches addressing inequality and its economic interdependence. Methodology: Due to its positive and normative nature, inequality is a complex concept that eludes precise definition. The available application of mainstream and heterodox approach to study inequality and its economic interdependence allows for the identification of various components of inequality. Classifications that fall within the mainstream economics especially reveal less numerous and often even different types of inequalities compared to heterodox approaches. Moreover, what determines within-country inequality is the number of driving forces related to the factual and regulatory sphere of an economy. Findings: This study does not exhaust the general debate over inequality in economics. The question remains about the state of research dedicated to the outcomes of inequality, for instance, perceived in its dynamic and historical perspective. Moreover, there emerges a need to overview the theoretical and empirical research dedicated to inequality in terms of not only its driving forces but also economic outcomes. Wyświetleń497 Pobrań100 |

Purpose: The theory of endogenous growth suggests a number of relations between income inequality and human capital. However, empirical evidence in this field is scarce. Therefore, in this paper we aim to demonstrate the existence of interdependencies between income inequality and human capital across OECD countries. Methodology: We present findings of the endogenous growth theory on the mechanisms linking inequality with human capital. Subsequently, we attempt to verify these links empirically using the regression function estimated by means of the generalized method of moments (GMM). The empirical analysis is based on panel data from 1995–2010. Findings: The results of the study reveal the existence of a negative relationship between income inequality and health indicators (infant mortality and maternal mortality). However, we did not reach an authoritative conclusion about the relationship between income inequality and quantitative indicators of educational achievement. Research limitations: Research is limited to the sample of OECD countries. Interdependencies between income inequality and human capital could be captured more clearly using a broader sample. Originality: This paper presents one of few studies testing the relation between human capital and income inequality. The use of high-quality empirical data on inequality (SWIID data) and the generalized method of moments made it possible to contribute new arguments to the discussion of empirical analyses of these economic categories. Wyświetleń230 Pobrań68 |

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the theoretical and empirical arguments for the causality between growing income inequality and increasing public debt within the capitalist economies. Methodology: The paper consists of two major parts. The first part discusses the long-term changes in value of public debt and income inequality within countries, and presents the theoretical arguments for the causality between these two categories. The second part of the paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of inequality in the upper and lower parts of income distribution on an increase of public debt in a sample of OECD-countries in 1995–2010. The statistical analysis is based on calculations of: (a) correlation coefficients between income inequality and public debt; and (b) parameters of regression equations of the level and rate of growth of public debt in a sample of countries. The parameters of regression equations were calculated with ordinary least squares and fixed effects methods. Findings: The results of the calculation illustrate that the growth of income inequality in the upper and lower parts of distribution stimulated an increase in value of public debt in the OECD countries between 1995 and 2010. Wyświetleń161 Pobrań63 |